‘Aradh (The Given, The Presented) & Maudhi’ (Substratum, Ether)

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Note: The term Māhiya means What-ness and vice a versa.

‘Aradh is a Wujud (Being) that cannot become unless depending upon a Maudhi’ (Place, Substratum, Ether). For example, color needs a physical object i.e. without such an object there is no way color can exist in and of itself.

‘Aradh is of two kinds:

1.    Integrated (Innate): ‘Aradh that is incorporated with the Wujud (Being) e.g. white as in 'object is white', the whiteness has immixed with the corporeality of the object
2.    Un-Integrated: ‘Aradh is not incorporated with the Wujud (Being) e.g. motion since the object that is in motion does not have the motion as a part of its constitution.

Inseparable ‘Aradh cannot be separated from the What-ness e.g. writer is an Aradh i.e. it needs the human being to be realized and yet it cannot be attributed to some other non-human object.

Separable ‘Aradh can be separated from the object, either it is fast-pace and withers away quick or it may last e.g. blushing is a fast-pace and Separable, meaning the redness quickly leaves the person, or youth a slow-pace but again separable.

التعريفات  الجرجان
الموجود الذي يحتاج في وجوده إلى موضع، أي محل، يقوم به، كاللون المحتاج في وجوده إلى جسم يحله ويقوم به، والأعراض على نوعين: قار الذات، وهو الذي يجتمع أجزاؤه في الوجود، كالبياض والسواد، وغير قار الذات، وهو الذي لا يجتمع أجزاؤه في الوجود، كالحركة والسكون.
والعرض العام: كلي مقول على أفراد حقيقة واحدة وغيرها قولاً عرضياً، فبقولنا: وغيرها يخرج النوع والفصل والخاصة، لأنها لا تقال إلا على حقيقة واحدة فقط، وبقولنا: قولاً عرضياً يخرج الجنس، لأنه قول ذاتي.
والعرض اللازم: هو ما يمتنع انفكاكه عن الماهية، كالكاتب بالقوة بالنسبة إلى الإنسان.
والعرض المفارق: هو ما لا يمتنع انفكاكه عن الشيء، وهو إما سريع الزوال، كحمرة الخجل، وصفرة الرجل، وإما بطيء الزوال، كالشيب والشباب.

Maudhi’ means a place or space within which something is characterized or objectified. In Whiteheadean language: Maudhi’ is a place or space within which some potentiality is realized i.e. objectified and no longer a possible potential instead definite and actual.

There are two kinds of objectifications or Being-ness:

1.    ‘Aradh: Needs Maudhi’ or space to objectify within
2.    Jauhar: Needs no such space

In more western technical terms Maudi’ can be translated into stratum, substratum, space, place, field or ether.

Note: By space or place we mean some Wujud (Being) that has spatial attributes e.g. within, above, below, through and so on.

Edward Nelson
"No physical system of finitely many degrees of freedom is truly isolated; it is always in interaction with a background field."
Source: Quantum Fluctuations, Princeton Series in Physics.

Potentialities that require a space to become i.e. Aradh, upon objectification they appear within their corresponding space. Simply by observing the Maudhi’ (The Space) one can spot them when objectified, or you might say the ‘Aradh is observable within its Maudhi’. Potentialities that require no space i.e. Jauhar are not subject to any observation i.e. unobservable.

‘Aradh is identified by two words:

1.    The Given: Meaning a decision was made and the objectification placed the object within the Maudhi’ (The Background Space)
2.    The Presented: Meaning a presentation was made to some observer and the objectification was observed as in the form of an object upon the stage of the Maudhi’

"For realistic thought, the notion of ‘givenness’ carries with it a reference beyond the mere data in question. It refers to a ‘decision’ whereby what is ‘given’ is separated off from what for that occasion is ‘not given’. The word is used in its root sense of a ‘cutting off’. (Dara: Cut off and placed within a Maudhi’ (The Background Space)."

The ‘Aradh (The Given) when does not appear within the Maudhi’ (The Background Space), the background space is observed as being devoid of the ‘Aradh! And when the ‘Aradh (The Given) is presented within the background space, then it is observed. Therefore the ‘actuality midst the potentialities is simulated as such:

“‘Actuality’ is a decision amid ‘potentiality’.  The meaning of ‘givenness’ is that what is ‘given’ might not have been ‘given’; and that what is not ‘given’ might have been ‘given’. “

The past Logician Sages used to say:

The definition with What-ness for What-ness!

التعريف بالماهية للماهية

Meaning there has to be an a priori What-ness, as the background assumption or definition or construct, which would be used to define some de novo What-ness.  We cannot fathom something from nothing:

“‘Coherence’, as here employed, means that the fundamental ideas, in terms of which the scheme is developed, presuppose each other so that in isolation they are meaningless. This requirement does not mean that they are defined in terms of each other, it means that what is indefinable in one such notion cannot be abstracted from its relevance to the other notions. It is the ideal of speculative philosophy that its fundamental notions shall not seem capable of abstraction from each other. In other words, it is presupposed that no entity can be conceived in complete abstraction from the system of the universe.”

‘Aradh (The Given) deals with nine types of What-ness:

1.    Quantitative, the What-ness is measurable within the background space e.g. length
2.    Qualitative, an attribute that can be felt within the background space e.g. hot
3.    Correlation, relational linkage to something else within the background space e.g. paternity
4.    Spatial
5.    Temporal
6.    Integration, the What-ness is integrated into something within the background space else e.g. molecule as integration atoms
7.    Possession, something belongs to the What-ness or it belongs to something else within the background space e.g. the arm has strength
8.    Performance, the What-ness does deeds to others in within the background space
9.    Excitations, the What-ness is acted upon by another agent within the background space

© 2008-2002,  Dara O Shayda