Introduction by Dr. Reza
According to most historians
the 7th & 8th
century of Islam (1200-1300 CE) were some of the bloodiest and saddest
due to invasion lead by Moguls against the eastern provinces of Iran.
the most prominent Grand Sheikhs were slaughtered e.g. Sheikh
and Attar Neyshaaboori and much of the Persian religious luminaries
scattered around the neighboring countries. These attacks left
upon the society of Iran:
the Iranian scientists, Orafa (Sufi Erudite) and
poets e.g. Sultanol Olamaa Bahaa Walad the father of Molawi to Qunieh
Sayfed-din Aaqsaara and etc. The net side effect of this migration was
expansion of foreign centers of culture and knowledge e.g. Asia Minor
previous flourishing creativity was lost and replaced by
perpetual analysis and rehashing of the old subjects.
had no interest in religion but found interest in
Sufism, therefore they financed the rapid expansion of the Khaqneqaah
old man collected some followers and got financed for training
fraud and superstition was spread around but from amongst these schools
generation of Sufi luminaries was raised e.g. Attar Neyshaaboori, Shams
Tabrizi, Sultanol Olamaa Bahaa Walad, Molawai, Shahabed-din Sahrwardi,
Faredh, Ibn Arabi, Termezi, Awhed-din Kermani, Khajoo Kermani, Semnani,
Shah Ne’matollah Wali and of course Mahmood Shabestari.
at that time saw the invasions as the Divine punishment
for the sins of the Muslims. Fatalistic attitudes e.g. the School of
(Fate’s Fatalism & Inescapability) drowned the spirit of
bravery, endurance and chivalry—necessary characteristics for
posture of submission and complacence conquered the minds & hearts
thinkers and artists. One can see this impact upon the Molawi’s
Shabestari’s Haqqol-Yaqin’s 7th chapter.
period of 7th and 8th century of
Islam (1200-1300 CE) Arefs such as Ibn Arabi introduced the concept of
philosophy into Sufism. Therefore the Sufi schools taught religion and
and encouraged philosophical exchanges in the form of tales (Hekayat)
additional teachings were called “Elm Irfaan” (Science of Ma’refat) or
Irfaan” (Philosophy of Ma’refat). The two seminal works of Ibn Arabi
“Fotoohot Makki” and “Fosoosol Hekam” rendered the principles of Sufism
Irfaan (Science of Ma’refat) in a more rationalized and logical
upon deductions and reasoning. And Sufis like Araqi and Shebestasri
this trend e.g. 4th chapter for Haqqol-Yaqin is under
influence of the Ibn Arabi’s work.
Sufism reached India it was intermixed with the Indian
intricate, complex and elegant wisdom. Although Saharwardy’s work had
spread through India, both Shah Ne’matollah Wali and his son Shah
expanded the Sufism even further.
These Sufi expansions gave
rise to Sufi politicians and
rulers. This trend started by Sayyed Mohammad Noorbaksh and Sheikh
Ardabily used spiritual excuses to influence the political arena. Some
children even established their own rule and government e.g. Uprising
Daran, Mosha’sha’in, Saadaan Mar-a’shi and the movement of Horoofieh
remarkable resilience of Sufism to arise the spirit of combat against
and cruelty (around the 8th century of Islam).
Dara O. Shayda