Mubtada’ (Beginning): This is usually a definitive name that some
information about it is transmitted within the rest of the Arabic
sentence. It is always in Raf’ (Nominative) state. Mubtada’ can also be
Khabar (News, Information): This is usually a phrase issuing some
useful information about the Mubtada’ (Beginning). In Arabic grammar it
is allowed to omit the Khabar for variety of purposes and the Mubtada’
(Beginning) is left without any explanation.
1. “Allah is our Lord”: ‘Allah’ is Mubtada’
(Beginning) and ‘our Lord’ is Khabar (News, Information).
2. “And it is better for you that you fast” [2:184]:
‘that you fast’ is Mubtada’ (Beginning) while ‘it is better for you’ is
Khabar (News, Information).
There are three states for names and verbs in Arabic:
1. Raf’: Nominative, vowelled with Dhamma (‘O’ sound)
2. Nasb: Accusative, vowelled with Fat-ha (A sound as
3. Jarr: Genitive, vowelled with Kasra (‘e’ sound as
in eel or ted)