Mubtada’ (Beginning): This is usually a definitive name that some information about it is transmitted within the rest of the Arabic sentence. It is always in Raf’ (Nominative) state. Mubtada’ can also be a phrase.

Khabar (News, Information): This is usually a phrase issuing some useful information about the Mubtada’ (Beginning). In Arabic grammar it is allowed to omit the Khabar for variety of purposes and the Mubtada’ (Beginning) is left without any explanation.


1.    “Allah is our Lord”: ‘Allah’ is Mubtada’ (Beginning) and ‘our Lord’ is Khabar (News, Information). 
2.    “And it is better for you that you fast” [2:184]: ‘that you fast’ is Mubtada’ (Beginning) while ‘it is better for you’ is Khabar (News, Information).

There are three states for names and verbs in Arabic:

1.    Raf’: Nominative, vowelled with Dhamma (‘O’ sound)
2.    Nasb: Accusative, vowelled with Fat-ha (A sound as in cat)
3.    Jarr: Genitive, vowelled with Kasra (‘e’ sound as in eel or ted)