Surat (Constraint)

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See Also 

Sawwara-Kum, Sawwar-Nā, Yu-Sawwir-u  
Constraint: Agent to shape and form   
Surat Rahmani
Surat: A Space for shaping life-forms
Surat: An Attribute of Ishq (Unary Love) 
Surat in Fusus: Fass Adamiya (Adam’s Seal) 

Sawwara-Kum, Sawwar-Nā, Yu-Sawwir-u

Surat as a verb appears in 4 distinct verses:

1.    [40:64], [64:3]: Wa (And) Sawwara (Past tense, IT shaped) Kum (You, pl) Fa (Consequently) beautified/perfected Suwara(Shapes, pl) Kum (You, pl). Sawwara refers to Hu (IT, He) third person absent agent/doer in the past test however the pronoun Hu is omitted due to the extreme of absence.

وَصَوَّرَكُمْ فَأَحْسَنَ صُوَرَكُمْ

Specific Template
Sawwara is built from the template Fa’ala which gives the verb several relevant attributes: a) Intensity of the action or energy put behind the action, b) Repetition. It is not used in any other templates.

Past Tense
Therefore the repetition occurred in the past tense, Qidam (Infinite Past) free of all potentialities. Notice that the verb Khalaqa (IT Created) does not come in the same form Khallaqa since there was nothing and then there was something under the action of Khalaqa, a binary process, free of any repetition (per single entity). But so far as our shapes goe the process was repeated and oft-repeated with huge amounts of force and energy behind it. This is an indication that unlike the Khalaqa there was no one-shot-deal and indeed the process of our shaping took many ‘iterations’. We know this from the genomic data on any cell of our body, that it carries within its chromosomes a complete record of past iterations in shaping/reshaping i.e. constraining all aspects of the cellular life-form through processes such mutation.

Exclusively applied to pronoun Kum (You, pl)
Note that Khalaqa and Sawwā are similar verbs but Khalaqa applicable to both Ka (you, singular) and Kum (you plural), and Sawwā only to singular pronoun for humans:
82:7 (IT) Who Khalaqa (Created) Ka (you, singular), Sawwā (Engineered) Ka (you, singular) in due proportion

 الَّذِي خَلَقَكَ فَسَوَّاكَ فَعَدَلَكَ

This indicates again that shaping/reshaping was an action applied to a collective, as we understand today a molecular society of genes and other processes we have not discovered yet. Surat as a verb is not applicable to one individual, it is a collective that is shaped and reshaped as a society of well connected organisms.

Note: Sawwa-Hunna (Engineered them, pl female) used for skies in 2:29. But not for humans.

Wa (And) as the sentence connector
Wa (And) Sawwara (Past tense, IT shaped) Kum (You, pl): Wa is used before both occurrences above to indicate that the verb was executed amongst an ensemble of all kinds of other Divine Actions. No information about the timing is released.

Fa (Consequently, inexorably linked) used before beautification
When you see your child so beautiful, the beauty of the child is entangled with the (Past tense, IT shaped) Kum (You, pl) i.e. there would have been no beauty whatsoever in your child, psychological or physiological, unless Sawwara took place in infinite past by Hu (IT), as an absolute absent Agent/Doer.

2.    Sawwar-Nā-Kum, 7:11. We (Allah) shaped Kum (you, pl): Same as above except the explicit pronoun Nā (Us) is attached to the end of the verb Sawwara. Nā is based upon the Harf (Divine Alphabet) Nun (‘n’ sound in Arabic). It indicates a) Continuity, b) Nexus meaning a Divine Presence that allows for closeness and farness and “facts of relatedness” plus a Divine Presence that provides a continuum for all existence and spiritual experiences.

وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَاكُمْ

Thumma (Then with delay) We (Allah) shaped Kum (you, pl): First We created you, then with some delay in time and processes and whatever constitutes a gap of time or events, We shaped you. Therefore there is a Creation (binary Khalaqa) for the humans and then after some passage of time or circumstances or events, the humans are shaped as a collective.

3.    Present Tense U-Sawwiru-Kum: As indicated in the past-tense case the shaping-reshaping was an oft-repeated process that took place in every part of the body and mind and each cell of the body carries a genomic record of those iterations and modifications. However we also know that during the pregnancy also much shaping/reshaping takes place based upon the race, genetics, diet and psychological states of both parents.

But the verse could have composed differently in much smoother way rather than beginning with Huwa (IT, Allah) Al-Ladhi (That Which-Who) i.e. the verse allows the reader or listener to enter into the state of Insan Kamil (Perfected Eye) and see how Allah in most absent manner (Divine Presence-Modality of Hu) shapes and re-shapes the fetus in present tense extended to future.

3:6. Hu (IT, He), Al-Ladhi (That Which-Who), shapes you (plural) in the wombs as how Hu (IT, He) wills
هُوَ الَّذِي يُصَوِّرُكُمْ فِي الْأَرْحَامِ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ

Note: In any of the usages of the verb Sawwara direct address to Allah was not referenced. 

Musawwir: The Spectral Ism (Identifier)
If the Spectral Ism (Identifier) Musawwir did not exist, then there would have been no way a scientist in a laboratory could decipher any part of the genome or even understand the simplest of all processes that forms and shapes a living being:

59:24. "Hu is Allah, Al-Khāliq (The Creator), Al-Bāri’ (Inventor of the Living), Al-Musaw-wir (the Bestower of Forms)"

هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ

Constraint: Agent to shape and form  

All that you see of shapes and behaviors are formed and distinguished from all else by the Surat (Constraint):

Hand provides the Surat (Constraint) for the clay to form a pottery sculpture. Constraint means it provides the specific-ness for the entity to particularize itself into shapes and forms that discerns it from all else around it. Surat (Constraint) is the agent that endows the entity to be itself and not something else!  But hand is the agent that provides the shape and it is not a part of the pottery.

Temperature, as an agent, provides the Surat (Constraint) for the water to take different forms from gaseous vapor to runny liquid to incredible myriad of crystal shapes. Temperature is an agent to give shape, again, it is not a part of the ice crystals.

Gravity of a planet provides the Surat (Constraint) shape the space-time and Azizam (My dearest) observes that fact as a ball's curved trajectory or the circular trajectory of the satellites. Constraint means that the ball or the satellite cannot move any which way, rather they have to move in a constrained manner to fit the Surat (Constraint) of the planet’s gravity.  Gravity is an agent shaping the motions of the ball or the satellite, but it is not either.

Gene Expressions
within the brain, as agents, provide the Surat (Constraint) for much of the underlying behavior:

Group leader Shigeyoshi Itohara and colleagues at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Wako and at Hokkaido University genetically engineered a mouse strain in which the X11L gene was purposefully deleted or ‘knocked out’. X11L is a protein known to modulate neural activity in the brain. It also suppresses synthesis of the fibrous protein amyloid β, thought to cause Alzheimer’s disease. The X11L knockout (X11L-KO) mouse was originally developed in the hope of producing a model for Alzheimer’s disease, but it exhibited normal memory functions and learning capabilities.

The researchers did notice something unusual, however. The X11L-KO mice were subordinate to normal mice under conditions when the two needed to compete for food. Mutant mice always lost weight compared to normal mice, yet displayed no loss of appetite or physical weakness.

“These findings suggest that X11L is involved in the development of the neural circuits that contribute to conflict resolution,” says Itohara. “This mouse will provide us with opportunities to understand the mechanisms underlying approach behavior, and how to moderate it. With sufficient knowledge, we may be able to selectively modulate behavior, and possibly help overcome shyness in people.”


Gene expressions as agents do shape and reshape human behavior but they are not the human being.

Similarly Allah provides the Sura as a part of ITs performance as an agent doer that shapes and forms the human being, but Allah is not the human being:

Surat Rahmani

"Do not find a face repulsive or ugly (do not be repulsive to a face) for Allah created Adam compliant with ITs Surat", (in some other verbiage Surat of Rahman).

كنز العمال  للمتقي الهندي
المجلد الأول >> الباب الثالث في لواحق كتاب الإيمان وفيه ستة فصول >> الإكمال
1148 - لا تقبحوا الوجه فإن الله خلق آدم على صورته وفي لفظ على صورة الرحمن.
(قط في الصفات عن ابن عمر).

Chimpanzee, gorillas and apes have stunningly similar DNA strands and incredibly similar bodily features and mannerism to the human beings but the human being is distinctly and unmistakably different. The Surat-Rahmani (Rahmani Constraint) is the endowment of a Divine Constraint, a gift, given to human beings that gives the stark distinction, not only with the monkeys but with all the other species that share their DNA.

We have the same face like a monkey, but our face is constrained by the Surat-Rahmani and its glances, impressions and languages completely different than that of the monkeys:

3:6. Hu (IT, He), (it is) who, shapes you (plural) in the wombs as how Hu (IT, He) wills
هُوَ الَّذِي يُصَوِّرُكُمْ فِي الْأَرْحَامِ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ

"Allah created three objects by ITs Hand: Adam, book of Torah, planted the Paradise by ITs Hand."

كنز العمال\- للمتقي الهندي
المجلد السادس >> {الإكمال} من خلق آدم صلوات الله وسلامه عليه
15136- إن الله تعالى خلق ثلاثة أشياء بيده آدم بيده وكتب التوراة بيده وغرس الفردوس بيده.

Al-'Arhām: Wombs, Al the Alif-Lam of genus or collective society i.e. Nexus; or the Nexus of all women’s wombs which form a society wherein the panorama of Surat (Constraints to shape) projected and acted upon; humanity is shaped into black or white, rich or poor, kind or treacherous, within this society like the panoramic projection of a movie from Qidam (Space of Actualities free of all potentialities) into the collective of the female wombs.


Raham (Womb) is precisely composed of the same alphabets for Rahma (Divine Mercy); for this organ is the place within which Hus (ITs) Surat (Constraint) shapes the human form.

Yu: The prefix Ya (Letter y in Arabic) indicates that the Surat’s verb of Sawwiru must have a continuum to continue executing its actions. The Society of the wombs or Al-'Arham provides the continuum needed for Yu to operate within and bring forth the continuity of the humanity, in terms of molecular genetics and in terms of spiritual and psychological continuity of human race.


Kum: You plural i.e. humanity; we are not formed just on individual basis and as we know today from the genomic perspective we are very well connected on molecular basis i.e. Surat (Constraint) to shape the human beings happens both on the individual basis as well as the collective of humanity. In this verse clearly the emphasis is on the collective of humanity and second person plural pronoun is deployed to craft the necessary semantics.


Note: Sawwiru always used in conjunction with a plural pronoun i.e. Kum (You pl.) as opposed to Sawwā-Ka or Khalaqa-Ka which refer to the singular second person pronoun Ka (You singular). Therefore it is safe to conclude the Surat (Constraint) is a societal or for Nexus affair.

Kaifa-Ya-Shā’u: How Hu (IT, He) wills, Azizam (My Dearest) if you ever wondered what is Kaifa-Ya-Shā’u just glance at Azizat (Your Dearest) who was formed and exited from your belly, THAT is Kaifa-Ya-Shā’u. THAT child is a pointer to the how-ness of Hus (ITs, His) Divine Handicraft in absolute absentia!

Surat: A Space for shaping life-forms

3:6. Hu (IT, He), (it is) who, shapes you (plural) Fi (within) the wombs as how Hu (IT, He) wills
هُوَ الَّذِي يُصَوِّرُكُمْ فِي الْأَرْحَامِ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ

Fi (Within) is used indicating the spatial attribute for the verb-form of Surat (Constraint).

However the concept is extendible to the Sur, customarily translated as the trumpet, but it is the plural of the Surat:

Lisanul Arab
Ibn Manzour Afriqi

"Blown the souls into the unliving Sur, the plural of Surat, referring to the resurrection. (Narrated from Kalabi)"
لسان العرب  ابن منظور
وحكى الجوهري: عن الكلبي في قوله تعالى: يوم ينفخ في الصور، ويقال: هو جمع صورة مثل بسر وبسرة، أي ينفخ في صور الموتى الرواح، وقرأ الحسن: يوم ينفخ في الصور.

Al-Sur is the Society of all Surat i.e. the space wherein all the constraints forming shapes so they are giving life, a life-form with has distinguishable characteristics and attributes we call shapes and forms.

6:73, 27:87 The day it is blow into (Fi) Al (The) Sur
يَوْمَ يُنْفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ

50:20, 18:99 And blown (past) into (Fi) Al (The) Sur
وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّور

20:102 The day it is blow into (Fi) Al (The) Sur
يَوْمَ يُنْفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ وَنَحْشُرُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ يَوْمَئِذٍ زُرْقًا

The second resurrectional Surat has no lineage between the people as the original Surat had through the genetics:

23:101. Consequently blown (past) Fi (within) Al (the) Sur so/since there is no lineage amongst them that day
فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَلَا أَنْسَابَ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ

36:51 And blown (past) into (Fi) Al (the) Sur, Fa (consequently) from the graves (people) will rush forth to their Lord!
وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَإِذَا هُمْ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَنْسِلُونَ

39:68 And blown (past) into (Fi) Al(the) Sur, when all that are in the heavens and on earth swooned (past), except such willed (past) by Allah (to be exempt). Then (with some delay) blown (past) Fi (within) it (Sura), Fa they will be standing and looking on!
وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَصَعِقَ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا مَنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ ثُمَّ نُفِخَ فِيهِ أُخْرَى فَإِذَا هُمْ قِيَامٌ يَنْظُرُونَ

   69:13 Fa (Consequently) blown (past) Fi(within) Al(the) Sur a single puff
فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ نَفْخَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ

78:18 day (when) blows (present) Fi (within) Al (the) Sur and you (plural) come in waves
يَوْمَ يُنْفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ فَتَأْتُونَ أَفْوَاجًا

Surat: An Attribute of Ishq (Unary Love)

Sharh-e Shat-hiyat by Baqli
Chapter 272-791
Shat-h 42 of Sheikh Mansour Hallaj, may Allah ease his journey

“Within the sempiternity of Azal Hu was with Hu, singleton Self; Nothing was with Hu; Afterwards created the Shakhs (Individuation), Surat (Constraints) and Ruh (Souls); Created ‘Ilm (Divine Knowledge that requires learning and has the opposite of ignorance) and Ma’rif (Divine Knowledge that requires no learning and has no opposite of ignorance); … And what was within Hus (ITs) Dhat (Divine Inmost Essence) of Ishq (Unary Love) also was the Sifat (Attribute) of Surat (Constraint); Behold, you can see something great within your own Self and that gives you much pleasure (as an example of self-love or unary love); and no one can understand the latter and there is nothing in the skies or earth that can measure up to the latter since the affairs of the Azaliyat (Sempiternity) cannot be understood except by the Azali (Sempiternal entity). No affair or effort here suffices, for this is Hadath (Transient Realm) and if one hundred thousand of children of Adam cooperate with each other nothing is endeavored (to understand the Sifat of Ishq is the Sifat of Surat)”

Everything has been constrained and shaped into some existing form, beyond any deletion or alteration of their essence, and the latter is nothing but the manifestation of the Divine Ishq (Unary Love) i.e. Self-love which every entity is endowed with or it cannot exist in any realm for tiniest period.

Had there been no Ishq (Unary Love) then there would have been no Surat (Constraints) and we all have been lumped together as one unit with no discernable divisible sub-parts.

Why a triangle stays a triangle?

A triangular sign post is placed by the side of a road and for years it stays triangular. Why suddenly it does not reshape and become rectangular? What keeps its shape constant? How can it maintain the same shape for such long periods of time?

Sharh-e Shat-hiyat by Baqli
Chapter 272-794
Shat-h 42 of Sheikh Mansour Hallaj

“Then by means of these Divine Attributes, Allah willed to manifest/appear/transform Ishq (Unary Love) into Infirād (Individuation free of similarities, discernable from all else); when Allah glances at any entity, the entity develops a Surat (Constraint) endowed by Allah; and when Allah makes Tajalli (Lucent Manifestation) at any entity it becomes itself (and becomes something other than all other things); therefore for some time Allah views an entity, then for some time gives it peace, then for some time gives its welcoming greetings, after all that Allah converses with the entity, finally scatters (duplicates many individually different copies) that entity; for the purpose of Allah praising and adoring that entity.”

Surat (Constraint) that shapes all things come from Allah and no one else! And there is an urgent sense of permanency in these constraints: They keep something being itself for long periods of times. Surat (Constraint) is the direct attribute of Self-Love, for something loves itself to become and to continue being.

Without this attribute of Ishq (Unary Self-love) entities would never form and once concreted they vanish upon their concrescence and we can never have any stable Wujud (Being) or all universes would cease to be. 

But Surat (Constraint) and the individualized shapes do not come immediately or cheaply! Look at a golden apple in my refrigerator; as a part of it being a golden apple it has been given the Surat (Constraint) of molecularized genome which processed it into a golden apple for billions of years prior to its emergence on a tree in Ontario and its consequent appearance in my fridge. These billions of years of genomic molecularizations is what Sheikh Hallaj identifying with 'Allah looking at something for periods of time'; without these prolonged Divine Glances there is no loving and there is no self-love and consequently no Surat (Constraint) to shape a golden apple anywhere anytime for any purpose. When a lover loves a beloved, stares at that beloved for long periods of time, Allah loves all that which IT created thus has a prolonged glance at them, before during and after their creation.

No Eyes to watch, then No Shapes to form

No shape form unless there is an Eye prepared to view! As in Tetrode’s concept:

“The sun would not radiate if it were alone in space and no other bodies could absorb its radiation.” 
Source: H. Tetrode, Zeits, f. Physik 10, 317 (1922)

Azizam (My dearest) as you are reading these words printed or rendered, their shapes would not have formed had you not been there to read them! And the flower by the road would not have bloomed unless someone walked by and looked at its blossom.

So all this vast universe seemingly void of any eyes to watch all its content, billions of years old, who was watching it every moment? Answer: Hu was watching it. SomeONE is always there to watch everything in any universe in any point of space or time or whatever and however…

There is Qabiliyat (Receptiveness) between the Surat (Constraints to shape) and the Eyes, if there is an eye there must be a constraint that shapes some image and vice-a-versa if there is an image formed via some constraints then there has to be an eye to view it.

Surat in Fusus: Fass Adamiya (Adam’s Seal)

“And this is not so except to acquire the ‘Isti’dad (Appetition) from this engineered Surat in order to have Qabul (Reception, Absorption) for the perpetual Tajalli (Lucent Manifestation)” .

Referring to Allah creating a cosmos a spirit-less body like a mirror without any polish. And Allah did not create a space or place unless it has given the receptivity to accept spirits to occupy it. Or no mirror is made unless with ability to be polished to reflect images.

Fass Adamiya (Adam’s Seal)

“And if it was not for the "Sarayān (Flowing) of Al-Haqq" within all that exists by means of Surat (Constraint) there would have been no existence whatsoever.”

Sarayān, Sarā, ‘Isrā’: Travel during the night (darkness) or flowing. In order to make sense of the Sarayān (Flowing) Al-Haqq an English translation of Divine Current or Divine Flow would be proper.

Prior Art: First documented instance of Sarayan (Divine Current) was discovered by Sheikha Emmy Noether:

To every differentiable symmetry generated by local actions (Surat (Constraint) of a Lagrangian/Hamiltonian), there corresponds a conserved current.

These currents behave exactly as the current of an incompressible liquid e.g. water and yet they are not made from physical entities they are made from the intellectual or non-tangible entities e.g. energy, momentum or probability. They have corporeal manifestations e.g. electron currents in our electric wires.

In short, the Surat (Constraint) placed within each entity causes certain fluid-like currents of non-corporeal nature i.e. either intellectual or spiritual currents. These currents are sensed and measure by our instruments, by our senses, by our cognitive faculties by our spiritual faculties and organs.

Q: Did Ibn Arabi made up “Sarayān (Flowing) of Al-Haqq”?
A: No it is based upon the verbiage of Qur’an:

17:1. Subhan (Sanctified Be), That Which, made the night journey by means of ITs servant
سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي أَسْرَى بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلًا

It is generally translated and interpreted that Allah made/caused Muhammad to journey through the night, while in Arabic of the verse slightly different meaning can be traced: A Divine night journey took place and that was by the Surat (Constraint) of Muhammad i.e. by his existence, this night journey or Divine Flowing/Current was caused by Allah but by the flowing of Muhammad’s Surat (Constraint) but it was Allah’s Divine Journey (Muhammad's Suart traveled as the Khalifa (Deputy, Replacement)) and for that purpose the standing sanctification Subhan is issued prior to the mention of the journey to indicate that Surat of Muhammad commenced and carried out the mission but on behalf of Allah and Allah is sanctified from any material or spiritual associations. Had this not been the case why there is the Subhan phase?

See Also:

Fass Adamiya (Adam’s Seal)
"And because of the latter Adam was made into a Khalifa (Deputy, Replacement), for if he was not as such, emerging with the Divine Surat (Constraint) from the One he was replacing (being a deputy of) i.e. Allah, he would not be counted as a Khalifa (Deputy, Replacement) for those he was supposed to be serving as deputy i.e. the universe and all that it contains."

Fass Adamiya (Adam’s Seal)
“Consequently because of all the above, all what is within the Divine Surat (Constraint) based upon the Asma’ (Spectral Divine Names) emerged/appeared within the human genesis”

Allah issued the constraint of Mercy for ITself:

6:12. Qul (Say): "To whom belongeth all that is in the heavens and on earth?" Say: "To Allah. Hu/IT has inscribed for ITself Mercy.
كَتَبَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ الرَّحْمَةَ

So humanity possesses the same constraint of mercy.

And the latter is to serve as an elucidation for “Allah created Adam based upon ITs Surat”, assumption being that the pronoun hu of Surati-hi refers to Allah.

Note: There is much difference between the concept of constraint and limitation, for Allah cannot be limited in any form but IT has constraints as the above verses states. Example: the space around you is constrained by three measurable dimensions while it has no observable limits. Therefore the constraints are mental concepts separate than that of the physical limitations.

See Also: 

With regards to:

38:75. … (I) created by My Hand.
خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ

“And the latter is nothing except the integration between the two Surats (Constraints): Surat of Cosmos (Corporeal Surat) and Surat of Al-Haqq (Spiritual/Divine Surat), and this pair constitute the Two Hands of Allah.”

These Two Divine Hands are what created the Adam from the dust of the crust of earth. All that which comes close to Allah has no choice but become living and conversational and thus endowed by the Surat (Constraint) of dexterity or handedness in their engineering aspects of their corporeal composition as well their intellectual spiritual and conversational aspects. By Allah’s will and permission will write on the dexterity of the Two Divine Hands.

The term chiral (pronounced /ˈkaɪrəl/) is used to describe an object that is non-superposable on its mirror image.

Human hands are perhaps the most universally recognized example of chirality: The left hand is a non-superposable mirror image of the right hand; no matter how the two hands are oriented, it is impossible for all the major features of both hands to coincide. This difference in symmetry becomes obvious if someone attempts to shake the right hand of a person using his left hand, or if a left-handed glove is placed on a right hand. The term chirality is derived from the Greek word for hand, χειρ (cheir). It is a mathematical approach to the concept of "handedness".

When used in the context of chemistry, chirality usually refers to molecules. Two mirror images of a molecule that cannot be superposed onto each other are referred to as enantiomers or optical isomers. Because the difference between right and left hands is universally known and easy to observe, many pairs of enantiomers are designated as "right-" and "left-handed." A mixture of equal amounts of the two enantiomers is said to be a racemic mixture. Racemic mixtures are not optically active even though their two enantiomer constituents when separated are. Molecular chirality is of interest because of its application to stereochemistry in inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, biochemistry, and supramolecular chemistry.

Many biologically active molecules are chiral, including the naturally occurring amino acids (the building blocks of proteins), and sugars. In biological systems, most of these compounds are of the same chirality: most amino acids are L and sugars are D. Typical naturally occurring proteins, made of L amino acids, are known as left-handed proteins, whereas D amino acids produce right-handed protein

Enzymes, which are chiral, often distinguish between the two enantiomers of a chiral substrate. Imagine an enzyme as having a glove-like cavity that binds a substrate. If this glove is right-handed, then one enantiomer will fit inside and be bound, whereas the other enantiomer will have a poor fit and is unlikely to bind.

D-form amino acids tend to taste sweet, whereas L-forms are usually tasteless. Spearmint leaves and caraway seeds, respectively, contain L-carvone and D-carvone - enantiomers of carvone. These smell different to most people because our olfactory receptors also contain chiral molecules that behave differently in the presence of different enantiomers.


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