Tafsir (Exegesis) of Surah Al-An’ām (The Livestock)

Verses 1-3

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See Also:
Earlier works on Al-Ladhi:



Alif: First Harf (Divine Alphabet) of The Verse 6:1    
Al-Ladhi: The Connector    
   Al: The Definitive Article in Al-Ladhi
   Three Al-Ladhi(s) 
Khalaqa vs. Ja’ala  
   We: An unusual pronoun   
Thumma: The Delay 
Kafaru: Past Tense Disbelieved
Ajal: Stipulated Deadline   
The Imminent Doubt    
Huwa Allahu: Hu (IT, He) is Allah  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

6:1 The/All perpetual praise for Allah, Al-Ladhi (That Which, He Who), created the heavens and the earth and generated the darkness(s) and the light and Thumma (Then with delay) Al-Ladhi-na (Those who) disbelieved in their Lord are equating (Idols equaled to Allah).

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ الظُّلُمَاتِ وَالنُّورَ ثُمَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ يَعْدِلُونَ

6:2 Hu/Huwa (IT, He), Al-Ladhi (That which, He Who), created you from mud, Thumma (Then with delay) did Qadha (Primordial Decision) for a stipulated term, and with Hu (IT) another stipulated term, Thumma (Then with delay) you are in doubt.

هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ طِينٍ ثُمَّ قَضَى أَجَلًا وَأَجَلٌ مُسَمًّى عِنْدَهُ ثُمَّ أَنْتُمْ تَمْتَرُونَ

6: 3 And Hu/Huwa (IT, He) (is) Allah, within the heavens and within the earth, Hu (IT, He) knows what you hide and what you reveal, and Hu (IT, He) knows what you earn.

وَهُوَ اللَّهُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَفِي الْأَرْضِ يَعْلَمُ سِرَّكُمْ وَجَهْرَكُمْ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تَكْسِبُونَ

Alif: First Harf (Divine Alphabet) of The Verse 6:1  

Note: The following text is quite dense and compact; it requires much reflection in order to understand the intent of the author. I have separated the phrases and elucidated as best as I can, perhaps reading the section on Al-Ladhi could clarify some of the meanings:


Note that Alif is the first letter of the verse (Al-Hamdu) as well as the first letter of the Arabic alphabet and the first letter of Al-ladhi.

Sharh-e Shat-hiyat (Baqli)
Chapter 11
“O my heart-throbbing love! Listen to this writer about the meaning of Alif which is one of the Mutashabihat (Ambiguities). Know that Alif is one of the Shat-h (Terse Laconic Spiritual Phrases), an Isharat (Vector) pointing at the establishment of the Qidam upon Qidam, within the Qidam and from the Qidam; the singling out of the Dhat (Divine Essence) for the Dhat (Divine Essence) and within the Dhat (Divine Essence); and the Tajalli (Lucent Manifestation) of the Absolute End upon Absolute End, the (Tajalli of) ‘Ain (Portal) for ‘Ain (Portal); and news from the ‘Ain-Jam’ (Evanescence of transience) and Jam’- al-Jam’ (Becoming/Being one with the universe) and the plunge of all sunken causalities.

Alif is the foundation/origin for all causalities, the emergence of reality without the designs of Rububiyat (Divinity presented for Servitude) plainly in view enrobed with the gown of indefiniteness; and Ma’rifa (Unlearnt Knowledge) within Ma’rifa (Unlearnt Knowledge) while maintaining the prerequisite of indefiniteness; for Irfan (Cognizance of Divine Entities) is an unknown within the indefiniteness since indefiniteness is in reality a cut-off Ma’rifa (Unlearnt Knowledge).

Alif is the foundation/origin of the Qidam.

Transience due to the characterization of the Fana (Evanescence) within the outer-limits of ‘Adam (Non-Being), has no perturbing effect upon the Qidam: Because in reality there is nothing but Qidam!”

شرح شطحیات
روز بهان بقلی شیرازی
فصل 11
دلبرا از رهی بشنو معنی الف از حروف متشابهات
بدانک الفات از شطحیات اشارات استواء قدم در قدم بر قدم از قدم است
و فردانیت ذات بر ذات در ذات
و تجلی کنه بر کنه
و عین به عین
و خبر است از عین جمع و جمع جمع و اسقاط علل
آن اصل علت
و ظهور حقیقت بی رسم ربوبیت بروز کرده در لباس نکره
و معرفت در معرفت به شرط نکره
عرفان در نکره مجهول است
ونکره در حقیقت معرفتِ منقطع
الف اصل قدم است
حدثان به نعت فنا در ان غایت عدم بر قدم مزاحم نیست
زیرا که در حقیقت جز قدم نیست

O my heart throbbing love: This kind of metaphysical Sufi writings is not possible unless the writer is immersed in love and is deeply in love. Not every scholar with books and students can produce the same material. If you like this kind of knowledge, first and foremost, you must love and love passionately at that, or leave us.


That Alif is one of the Mutashabihat (Ambiguities):  We confuse Alif  the sounds which come out of our mouths or with a small vertical line on the paper. Indeed Alif can be confused with such trifle trivialities, but Alif’s reality is far larger than this universe.

معنی الف از حروف متشابهات

Know that Alif is one of the Shat-h (Terse Laconic Spiritual Phrases): Shat-h is the overflowing of a canal or a damn; the size of the overflowing water may be little but the original reservoir was massive! Similarly, Alif is a simple sound out of our mouths and a tiny vertical line on the paper but an overflow from the original reservoir, which is infinite!

Note: Qidam is the space of all actualities free of any potentialities and probabilities. Qidam has some spatial attributes e.g. within, before or after.

بدانک الفات از شطحیات

An Ishara (Vector) pointing at the establishment of the Qidam upon Qidam, within the Qidam and from the Qidam: No matter what entity we might think abou,t this entity should have a space to reside within as the mathematicians say, or needs to have a background field(s) or timespace to reside upon/within as the physicists say, or it needs to have an environment or habitat to reside within as the biologists say.  In general all entities need to reside upon a stratum. However Alif, like a vector, points at the Qidam residing upon nothing other than Qidam itself! Qidam needs no space or fields or environments or stratum to reside upon/within. Qidam therefore resides upon within and from Qidam! And Alif is that vector that points at this Self-Stratum of the Qidam.

اشارات استواء قدم در قدم بر قدم از قدم است

And (Alif is the) singling out of the Dhat (Divine Essence) for the Dhat (Divine Essence) and within the Dhat (Divine Essence): In order for an object to be discerned, there is need for a background so that it can be contrasted against. When you try to take a picture, you focus the lens until an image is formed with maximum contrast with the background. Dhat (Divine Essence) has no background to be contrasted against in order to be discerned as a separate entity, except for Dhat/ except for itself! And the Alif, again as overflowed water from a damn, overflows into this universe, into our hearts and minds to help us understand how the Dhat (Divine Essence) contrasts against itself.

و فردانیت ذات بر ذات در ذات

And (Alif is) the Tajalli (Lucent Manifestation) of the Absolute End upon Absolute End: Absolute End or the Farsi Kunh is a Sufi Farsi word for the absolute reality of the Dhat (Divine Essence) i.e. the realities beyond which there are no other realities. At that infinite depth of the sea of realities only a flash of light can help in order for anything to be seen! That flash of light in the dark hadal depth of  the sea of realities is called Tajalli (Lucent Manifestations). Therefore Alif is like a directional/vectorial flash of light in that infinite depth, letting the last of the realities be exposed to each other, and letting us see that depth from where we are in this universe.

و تجلی کنه بر کنه

The (Tajalli of) ‘Ain (Flowing Portal) for ‘Ain (Flowing Portal): ‘Ain is a Sufi Arabic word for a vortex or a portal through which entities are emanated into the universe, much like a spring through which water flows into the surrounding universe.  ‘Ain is an Ishara (Vector) pointing at the Dhat (Divine Essence) in Qidam; all that there is flows out of this ‘Ain (spring) (Sharhi Shathiyat 1270). I have translated the term into ‘Flowing Portal’ to indicate both the river-like attribute as well as the vortex portal attribute. By 'Flowing Portal' we mean the entrance into a new universe where the laws are very different from the original universe where the flow originated. Therefore again the flash of Tajalli (Lucent Manifestation) of Alif exposes the rivers flowing from the Qidam, exposing the rivers to each other, so they know about each other, so they might entangle and so we might be able to see the meandering currents.

و عین به عین

And news from the ‘Ain-Jam’ (Evanescence of transience) and Jam’-Jam’ (Becoming/Being one with the universe) and plunge of all sunken causalities: ‘Ain-Jam’s is one of the names of Tauhid (Divine Oneness) which indentifies the evanescence of all transience while in midst of the Divine Actions e.g. when the burning bush sounded: O Moses indeed I am Allah [28:30]; the transience/ temporal existence of the burning bush was wiped away (sunken) and all was left was pure Divine Actions and Deeds! Alif is the news about such evanescence of the transience in the face of the Divine Deeds and Presence. Jam’-Jam’ deals with when/state one can hear/see/feel clearly all objects, indeed the entire universe, busied with Tasbih (Sanctification and Glorification) of Allah: 17:44 "The seven heavens and the earth, and all beings therein, declare Hu’s (ITs, His) glory: there is not a thing but celebrates Hu’s (ITs, His) praise; And yet you understand not how they declare His glory!" Jam’-al-Jam’ is when you are one unit with the rest of the universe and hear/see/feel the Divine Hymn. ‘Plunge of sunken causalities’ was translated as such in order to deal with the hydrophobic nature of the Qidam and this universe, the causalities like the oil or sediments move towards the bottom universe i.e. here where we are and the rest, the actualities move upwards like water on top. Alif brings us the news about the latter.

و خبر است از عین جمع و جمع جمع و اسقاط علل

And (Alif is the) emergence of reality without the visible-expressions of Rububiyat (Divinity presented for Servitude) plainly in view enrobed with the gown of indefiniteness: This whole sentence is the very definition of Ahad, the Divine Name as in ‘Say Hu (IT, HE) (is) Allah Ahad’ [112:1]. Indeed Alif is the first letter of the Ahad. Ahad normally means one, but it is not one as in numbers and counting, but it is one as in the meaning of the essence i.e. it describes a fantastic modality of the Divine Presence wherein there is nothing, no creature or knowledge, nothing save Allah. Therefore Alif is the appearance of the reality of Ahad, minus the worshipers in servitude, and this reality is enrobed as an indefinite entity i.e. the word Ahad is missing the definite article ‘Al’ as in Al-Rahman (The Beneficent) or Al-Rahim (The Merciful). This lack of article Al (The) is the core signature of the Divine Presence of Ahad as an indefinite Divine Entity. You can imagine this indefinite by pointing i.e. if something is definite then you can point to it somehow, but when it is indefinite you cannot point at it in any form or fashion. Therefore the Alif is the very emergence of appearance of this peculiar indefiniteness!

و ظهور حقیقت بی رسم ربوبیت بروز کرده در لباس نکره

And (Alif is) Ma’rifa (Unlearnt Knowledge) within Ma’rifa (Unlearnt Knowledge) while maintaining the prerequisite of indefiniteness: Ma’rifa is knowledge about a specific entity, a knowledge that has no opposite i.e. ignorance; it is a knowledge that has no learning associated with it; it is a knowledge that is out of the passage of time i.e. whomever possesses it believes that he has had it forever and there was no time when he did not have this Ma’rifa. ‘While maintaining the prerequisite of indefiniteness’ can be best translated into the modern term of ‘abstraction’ i.e. different Ma’rifa appear within other Ma’rifa(s) as abstract forms, however in a most indefinite way and that indefinite abstraction’s origin is Alif. Example, when we say God, there is no place we can point to in order see God it is an indefinite abstract concept, however it is as real as the creator of the universe and its administrator! And again none of the words ‘creator’ or ‘administrator’ are definite! Alif allows us to understand the concepts of these indefinite abstractions.

و معرفت در معرفت به شرط نکره

For Irfan (Cognizance of Divine Entities) is an unknown within the indefiniteness: Irfan is full cognizance beyond doubt and free of incompleteness. Therefore Irfan cannot deal with the indefiniteness;  if it could then the indefinite would become a definite. Therefore so far as the indefinites are concerned, Irfan (Cognizance) is an unknown. In modern terms this form of Irfan (Cognizance) is incomplete i.e. it can only partially help the intellect to cognize a Divine Knowledge.

عرفان در نکره مجهول است

Since indefiniteness is in reality a cut-off Ma’rifa (Unlearnt Knowledge): Imagine that all Ma’rifa forms a unit. Now imagine that a piece of knowledge was cut out of the ensemble. This knowledge  can be best represented by something indefinite e.g. imagine that amongst all knowledge about fruits, knowledge about the apple was removed from all sources of knowledge. Then despite the fact that the apple continues to exist, no one can clearly see it for sure or know about it for sure; the most that can be said about the apple would be a few indefinite descriptions e.g. it is round with seeds at the core and so on. This indefiniteness is caused by the 'cutting off' of the apple Ma’rifa (Unlearnt Knowledge) from all sources of knowledge'. In sum, definite objects can participate in the causalities dealing with each other, but when an indefinite object needs to participate within the causality it is made into an abstraction of some kind and at that end: Alif is the source of all causalities and is again the source for the abstraction of all indefiniteness. Applied to the Divine Presence: Alif is the source of the causal universe and its facts of relatedness, yet the same Alif is also the source of the abstraction of Ahad (Divine Oneness without any other existence) an Indefinite mode of Divine Presence.

ونکره در حقیقت معرفتِ منقطع

“For example, if two systems A and B interact, the coordinates of one system, say B, may be eliminated from the equations describing the motion of A. The interaction with B is represented by a change in the formula for the probability amplitude associated with a motion of A. It is analogous to the classical situation in which the effect of B can be represented by a change in the equation of motion of A (by the introduction of terms representing forces acting on A). “
Source: Space-time Approach to Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Rev. Mod. Phys. 20, 367-387 (1948)

The human being is a Divine Translator, translating the vast Divine Knowledge(s) into words, actions and emotions within humanity and upon this earth. Within one knowledge, talking about another knowledge requires two vital tools (Divine Gifts):

1.    Indefiniteness, in order for me to convey information and knowledge about an apple, indeed I need to have an indefinite concept of ‘fruit’ as well as ‘round’ or the only way I could convey any concept about an apple is to present that precise apple to the reader.
2.    Abstraction, I can simply tell you that the ‘force of gravity is what causes the fall of the apple off the tree’ all together ignoring the existence of the earth, of unnumbered particles and processes and fields that constitute the gravity of the planet earth and simply present the concept of the ‘force’ to replace all that!

By means of these two concepts of Indefiniteness and Abstraction we can sew together the Divine Knowledge(s) from Qidam into our minds in this transient temporal universe. 

Al-Ladhi: The Connector

Al-Ladhi is a connector connecting two phrases/sentences:

‘A’ Al-Ladhi ‘B’

A and B are phrases or sentences, and the assigned semantics to Al-Ladhi are as follows:

1.    ‘is That Which’ or ‘is He Who’ e.g. Virus Al-Ladhi makes people sick or Virus ‘is that which’ is making people sick. Dara Al-Ladhi writes about Sufism or Dara ‘is he who’ writes about Sufism.
2.    Al-Ladhi could also be dealing with an entity that has or possesses something as a possession e.g. Dara Al-Ladhi has a Sufi library or Dara ‘is he who’ has a Sufi library.
3.    Al-Ladhi could also be dealing with an entity that is endowed with a certain characteristic or an innate nature. Dara Al-Ladhi is a Persian or Dara ‘is he who’ is a Persian. 
4.    Al-Ladhi could also be dealing with an entity that perform certain deeds e.g. Dara Al-Ladhi reads Persian or Dara ‘is he who’ reads Persian.

Note: Please see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relative_clause#Arabic  

Jurjani (Dala’ilu ‘I’Jaz)
“You cannot connect Al-Ladhi except to a sentence that the listener has previous knowledge about or is cognizant of (the content of the connected phrase) e.g. you saw a poet with your friend yesterday and now you ask him: What did the poet Al-Ladhi was with you yesterday do? “

دلائل الإعجاز  عبد القاهر الجرجاني
في الذي خصوصاً
تفسير هذا أنك لا تصل الذي إلا بجملة من الكلام قد سبق من السامع علم بها، وأمر قد عرفه له، نحو أن ترى عنده رجلاً ينشده شعراً فتقول له من غد: ما فعل الرجل الذي كان عندك بالأمس ينشدك الشعر؟ هذا حكم الجملة بعد الذي إذا أنت وصفت به شيئاً.

In ‘A’ Al-Ladhi ‘B’, B has to be fully known to the listener in order for Al-Ladhi to connect the A to B meaningfully. If B is unknown or not understood then Al-Ladhi cannot connect A to B.

'A’ Al-Ladhi ‘B’ forms a telescopic view, with the eye at ‘A’ looking through Al-Ladhi into ‘B’, and if ‘B’ is not understood or fully cognized then there is no focus for the viewing and the telescope would not work properly.

Al-Ladhi is the very aiding tool that allows for us to become Insan Kamil or Perfect Pupil, to glance from the other universe of Qidam into the potential transient realm of here!

Al-Ladhi is a Wujud (Being) just like a telescope or a moon are beings! It is an existence that allows for the connection from the other universe of Qidam to here! It is an existence that allows for the telescopic view of Ma’rifa (Divine Cognizance), while the Eye being in Qidam looks from there to here.

Al-Anbari (The Secrets of Arabic Language)
“Q: Why was the pronoun ‘him’ omitted from the verse: [25:41] Is this Al-Ladhi Allah delegated (him) as a messenger?
A: The phrase ‘is this’ refers to the omitted pronoun ‘him’; this pronoun may be omitted, for "him" morphed into Al-Ladhi, so that the verb, the doer ( subject) and the object all became as if one entity! All three morphed into one thing!”
أسرار العربية - أبو البركات الأنباري
فإن قيل فلم حذف في قوله تعالى ( أهذا الذي بعث الله رسولا ) قيل لأن العائد ضمير المنصوب المتصل والضمير المنصوب المتصل يجوز حذفه وإنما جاز حذفه لأنه صار الاسم الموصول والفعل والفاعل والمفعول بمنزلة شيء واحد فلما صارت هذه الأشياء بمنزلة الشيء الواحد طلبوا لها التخفيف وكان حذف المفعول أولى لأن المفعول فضلة بخلاف غيره من هذه الأشياء فكان حذفه أو

In the above said verse [25:41] the messenger is within the state of the Insan Kamil and the pronoun ‘him’ is no longer necessary or applicable to the messenger as his person is morphed within the very ‘viewing tool’ Al-Ladhi, and there is no need to mention ‘him’ redundantly.

Note: Al-Ladhi is a connector that connects the Qidam (The Space of all actualities) to here, our realm of all potentialities and uncertainties. This connecting act is ocular like a telescope, a ‘viewing instrument’ which allows the human’s eye to be in Qidam and look to this world, and the act and nature of this glance are fully free of all potentialities and uncertainties.

Al-Hamdu (The Perpetual Praise) is a state of Divine Presence, while the ‘created  xyz’ or ‘and generated xyz’ are actualities within the Qidam (Space of all actualities). While Al-Ladhi (That Which, He Who) is a connector in the sense of ‘viewing instrument’ which allows a viewing from the Divine Presence aimed at the actualities of the Qidam.

Somehow, and beyond any cognizance and only in the case of human beings in their corporeal formation, exists the ability to view through the viewing instrumentation of the Al-Ladhi (That Which, He Who)!  A viewing from very close to the Divine Presence towards the actualities of the creation, of all things actualized within the Qidam.

Without the ‘entanglement’ of Al-Ladhi (That Which, He Who) there would have been no possibility for such a spiritual glance at the Qidam. Therefore the Al-Ladhi, though a word made up of few letters, is only the tip of the iceberg or more technically an Isharat (Vector) pointing at a viewing instrumentat.

Note: This a Quantal model i.e. a microscopic Quantum model based upon the microscopic view of entanglements, so what we understand as vectors are not necessarily solid straight lines, but loops and braids of topological nature which do not touch each other but form entanglements that comprise the Insan Kamil (Perfect Pupil).

The Classical Model for Al-Ladhi is that of a vectorial line that stretches from Qidam into the transient temporal world i.e. here. This model is understood by our daily macroscopic view of the world through our senses. Then we imagine a Spiritual Eye peeping from Qidam into this world and Al-Ladhi is the line of sight so to speak.

This is a fine model, as long as we remember that it is a macroscopic model.

Note: In this classical model our vectors are straight lines, along which things do come in close proximity to each other via our macroscopic daily concepts.

Al-Ladhi is a connector name connecting to the existence of the hearts underneath the veil of Ghayb (Divine Unseen, Unobservable) and thus Allah said (after Al-Ladhi): "Created the heavens and the earth".

Dara: ‘created the heavens and the earth’ relates to the creation of our hearts here; although we cannot observe our hearts which are veiled by the Divine Unseen, the Al-Ladhi connects to them, from the other universe to here where the hearts are functioning in an unobservable manner.

 تفسير لطائف الإشارات / القشيري (ت 465 هـ)
وقوله عز وجل: { الَّذِى خَلَقَ السَّمَواتِ وَالأَرْضَ }: " فالذي " إشارة و { خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ } عبارة. استقلت الأسرارُ بسماع " الذي " لتحققها بوجوده، ودوامها لشهوده، واحتاجت القلوب عند سماع " الذي " إلى سماع الصلة لأن " الذي " من الأسماء الموصولة بكوْنِ القلوب تحت ستر الغيب فقال: { خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ }.

Al: The Definite Article in Al-Ladhi  


“In ‘6: 3: "And Hu/Huwa (IT, He) (is) Allah, within the heavens and within the earth’ the phrase ‘within the heavens’ means the Divine Name Allah i.e. Allah is the deified deity worshiped within the heavens and the earth. And again in the verse: [43:84]" Hu (IT) is Al-Ladhi (That Which is) a deity within the sky and a deity within the earth" means Hu is renowned, well known and famous with ITs singleton deification within the heavens and the earth. “

تفسير الكشاف/ الزمخشري (ت 538 هـ) مصنف و مدقق
قراءة الآية
فتح صفحة القرآن
الانتقال الى صفحة القرآن
{ وَهُوَ ٱللَّهُ فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَفِي ٱلأَرْضِ يَعْلَمُ سِرَّكُمْ وَجَهْرَكُمْ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تَكْسِبُونَ }
{ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوٰتِ } متعلق بمعنى اسم الله، كأنه قيل: وهو المعبود فيها. ومنه قوله:
{ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى فِى ٱلسَّماء إِلَـٰهٌ وَفِى ٱلاْرْضِ إِلَـٰهٌ }
[الزخرف: 84] أو وهو المعروف بالإلٰهية أو المتوحد بالإلٰهية فيها

The Alif & Lam of the Al-Ladhi (article of definition) makes the target of the Al-Ladhi definite i.e. the creations of the heavens and the earth are a part of a process that makes the Hu (IT, He) and Allah a definite existence, each in its own varied way. Therefore there are two kinds of people, with two kinds of very different spiritual experiences:

1.    Some who feel the description-less presence of a being close by i.e. Hu (IT, He) and need nothing else to complete their spiritual experience
2.    Others who do not feel the presence of Hu (IT, He) or feel IT but need more articulation to complete the experience, and this where the Al-Ladhi helps to make the Divine Presence more definite and defined. for them..

Jurjani (Dala’ilu ‘I’Jaz)
Know that in al-Ladhi there is much knowledge for you; immense secrets and hidden matters which if you were to investigate and visualize, you would reap many benefits that would give solace to the Nafs, and would cool the breast, through that which is apportioned to you of Certainty and that which you are led to of sublime elucidation. The way ( to reach this) is that you ponder on instructive examples others have in it (al-Ladhi) : Why was it used? For what purpose was it introduced? How was it described?

دلائل الإعجاز  عبد القاهر الجرجاني 
في الذي خصوصاً
اعلم أن لك في الذي علماً كثيراً، وأسراراً جمة، وخفايا إذا بحثت عنها وتصورتها طلعت على فوائد تؤنس النفس، وتثلج الصدر، بما يفضي بك إليه من اليقين، ويؤديه إليك من حسن التبيين. والوجه في ذلك أن تتأمل عبارات لهم فيه: لم وضع، ولأي غرض اجتلب، وأشياء وصفوه بها.

Three Al-Ladhi(s)

The two verses  [6:1-2] have three applications of the Al-Ladhi and each of these three has different semantics:

1.    ‘[6:1] The perpetual praise for Allah, Al-Ladhi (That Which, He Who), created the heavens’, in this context the Al-Ladhi is a Na'at (Characterization) i.e. it characterizes the way Allah is as the supreme inventive creative creator of the heavens and the earth.
2.    ‘[6:1] Al-Ladhi-na (Those who) disbelieved’, in this context the Al-Ladhina is used for those who veiled their Self against the Nur (Divine Light) and Divine Beauty, and in this context the Al-Ladhi  is Mubtada’ (The Beginning) i.e. there is nothing to be considered or be said about this Al-Ladhi indeed it is the very beginning of the disbelievers’’ affairs.
3.    ‘[6:2] 6:2 Hu/Huwa (IT, He), Al-Ladhi (That which, He Who), created you’, in this context is Hu (IT, Hu) is Mubtada’ (The Beginning) and Al-Ladhi is the Khabar (The News, The information) about the beginning.

Source: Mu’jami ‘I’rab Al-Faz Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, by Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi PhD

Khalaqa vs. Ja’ala     

Al-Zarkashi (al-Burhan fi ''Ulum Al-Qur'an)
“On Ja’ala”, Vol 4.
“Ja’ala has a similar meaning to Khalaqa i.e. creating inventing and applies only to the subject/object of the invention. However Khalaqa deals with the Taqdir (Immutable Destiny) i.e. becoming, while Ja’ala deals with the Tasyir: Transference from one stage to another, or metamorphosis from one entity into another. 

Khalaqa deals with becoming from non-being into a being without any pre-existing substances, while Ja’ala relies on pre-existing substances that are morphed into a new entity.”

Note: Khalaqa is translated into ‘created’ and Ja’ala into ‘generated’.

 البرهان في علوم القرآن
محمد بن بهادر بن عبد الله الزركشي أبو عبد الله
 الثالث بمعنىالخلق والاختراع فتعدى لواحد كقوله تعالى وجعل الظلمات والنور 4 أي خلقهما .
فان قيل ماالفرق بين الجعل والخلق قيل إن الخلق فيه معنى التقدير وفي الجعل معنى التصيير 5 كانشاء شئ من شئ او تصيير شئ شيئا او نقله من مكان ويتعدى لمفعول واحد لانه لا يتعلق إلا بواحد وهو المخلوق .
وايضا فالخلق يكون عن عدم سابق حيث لايتقدم مادة لا سبب محسوس والجعل يتوقف على موجود مغاير للمجعول يكون منه المجعول او عنه كالمادة والسبب ولا يرد في القرآن العظيم لفظ جعل في الاكثر مرادا به الخلق إلا حيث يكون قبله ما يكون عنه او منه او شيئا في محسوسا عنه يكون ذلك المخلوق الثاني بخلاف خلق فان العبارة تقع كثيرا به عما لم يتقدم وجوده وجود مغاير يكون عنه هذا الثاني قال الله تعالى الحمد لله الذي خلق السموات والارض وجعل الظلمات والنور 6 وانما الظلمات والنور عن اجرام توجد بوجودها وتعدم بعدمها وقال تعالى وهو الذي مد الارض وجعل فيها رواس

We/Us: An unusual pronoun   
Scanning through the entire text of Qur’an we discover that Khalaqa (Created) is followed by all pronouns except ‘us’:

Me/I: [7:12] You (Allah) did create ‘me’ from fire, and him from clay.
You, singular: [82:7] Hu Who created ‘you’.
You, plural: [71:14] "'Seeing that it is Hu that has created ‘you’ in diverse stages.
Him/He: [80:18] From what stuff hath Hu created ‘him’?
Them/They:  [11:119] and for this did Hu create ‘them’.

Striking as it is, however the ‘We’ pronoun is indeed amongst the applications of the Ja’ala (Generated):

7:47 they will say: "Our Lord! Ja’ala (Let us become, placed) ‘us’ not to the company of the wrong-doers."
10:85 Our Lord! Ja’ala (Make) ‘us’ not a trial for those who practice oppression.
60:5 "Our Lord! Ja’ala (Make) ‘us’ not a (test and) trial for the Unbelievers.
2:128 "Our Lord! ‘and’ Ja’ala (Make) ‘us’ Muslims.
25:74 ‘and’ Ja’ala (Make) ‘us’ to lead the righteous.

In both [2:128] and [25:74] prior to Ja’ala referring to ‘We/Us’ the word ‘and’ is added to indicate that other entities have to be pre-existent to which the verb Ja’ala applies .

‘We/Us’ requires to be in an ensemble of already existing entities, there is a sense of partitioning and grouping which deals more with this transient temporal divisible universe than Qidam i.e. ‘We/Us’ is not like  the other pronouns, it deals with this world and the Qidam in a different way. ‘I’ can be aloof i.e. only deals with the person and the Divine Presence, but ‘We/Us’ requires other people and entities to be in existence, to form a group and for that matter this pronoun acts differently from ‘I’ and others.

تفسير عرائس البيان في حقائق القرآن/ البقلي (ت 404 هـ)
وأيضاً كان في الأزل عاشقا على عشاقه مشتاقاً إلى المشتاقين إليه ليظهر كنوز جلال الذات وجمال الصفات بنعت التعريف لأحبائه لقوله سبحانه " كنت كنزاً مخفياً فاحببت أن اعرف " فسبب اظهار الكون شرفه إلى جمال المشتاقين ومحبته السابقة للمحبين

Thumma: The Delay 

Al-Idhah (al-Khatib al-Qazwini)
“If you say: Zaid entered Fa (And) Amr exited, it means that Zaid entered and immediately Amr exited without any delay. And if you say: I exited Thumma exited Zaid, it means that the exit of the Zaid was some time after your exit i.e. delayed.”

الإيضاح في علوم البلاغة - الخطيب القزويني
 ) وعلى الثاني إن قصد بيان ارتباط الثانية بالأولى على معنى بعض حروف العطف سوى الواو عطفت عليها بذلك الحرف فتقول دخل زيد فخرج عمرو إذا أردت أن تخبر أن خروج عمرو كان بعد دخول زيد من غير مهلة وتقول خرجت ثم خرج زيد إذا أردت أن تخبر أن خروج زيد كان بعد خروجك بمهلة

Thumma (The Delay) can be due to the passage of time, the continuation of intermediate processes, cognitive and non-cognitive muse and mull, stages of objectification or any other process-oriented delay-like entity.

Kafaru: Past Tense Disbelieved

"Kafara" means covered, and the derivates of this word refer to the covering, veiling of an entity from others. It has been translated into English as disbeliever or unbeliever but the real intent is someone veiled against the Nur (Divine Light) and The Divine Beauty.

6:1 "The perpetual praise for Allah, Al-Ladhi (That Which, He Who), created the heavens and the earth and generated the darkness(s) and the light and Thumma (Then with delay) Al-Ladhi-na (Those who) disbelieved in their Lord are equating (Idols equaled to Allah)".

The word Thumma (The Delay) is used between the creation of the universe and the generation of the light/darkness i.e. there was some delay which occurred after all human beings were created: created in Qidam as actualities, prior to their biological concrescence upon this earth.

Within this delay of Thumma (The Delay), human beings saw the Divine Presence patently, they saw the creation of the heavens and earth, light and darkness were made quite visible to them, and within their inert essences/processes some ‘chose’ to be covered against the Nur (Divine Light) and Divine Beauty!

Notice the verb for disbelieved is "Kafaru" meaning ‘they veiled themselves’:

1.    The verb is in past tense indicating an actuality within the Qidam i.e. those who chose to be veiled against the Nur (Divine Light) did make that decision prior to their biological formation on this earth.
2.    It is not that they disbelieved or unbelieved, but they chose to be veiled against the Divine Presence and, to be exposed rather to the company and love of other than Allah.

The lack of interest in Allah was the very Primordial Decision that was taken by the souls in Qidam, a non-cognitive process, prior to the biological formation, after the Divine Presence was fully witnessed.  Nur (Divine Light) was valued less than the presence of other than Allah.

‘Al-Ladhi-na (Those who) disbelieved’ indicates that a community decision had been taken in Qidam i.e. the act of rejecting and not desiring the Nur (Divine Light) was not an individual act but a societal act, an ensemble that preferred their own inter-relationships and companionship as a veil against the Divine Presence.

‘Al-Ladhi-na (Those who) disbelieved in their Lord are equating (Idols equaled to Allah)’ has the verb ‘equating’ in the continuous present/future tense i.e. the act of equating to Allah is taking place here ( in this universe). And this behavior of lowering Allah’s status to that of the common creatures is the signature of the Primordial Decision within the Qidam:  the Qadar (Immutable Destiny) for this veiled community is disbelief as an emanation from the Qidam.

Al-Ladhi-na (Those who) is Mubtada’ (The Beginning):  the only beginning that can be observed for this veiled community is their disbelief, with the Khabar (The Information) about the Mubtada’ missing i.e. there is no emanation of information or news from the Al-Ladhi-na (Those who)—The Darkness(s) in plural.

Hu/Huwa (IT, He, Him)

The Explanation of The Beautiful Divine Names
“Know that this name Hu (IT, He), amongst the Sufis, informs about the most realized realization; and yet amongst the people who understand the surface meanings is Mubtada’ (The Beginning) that requires a Khabar (The Information) to complete a sentence. Amongst the people upon the Path it avails in and of itself a complete speech without need for any other words; and this so since they have perished within the realities of the Qurb (Divine Nearness) and their Sirr (Divine Observatory) is subjugated to the Dhikr (Remembrance) of Al-Haqq (The Absolute Reality and Truth, Allah) and nothing appears to their hearts except Hu (IT, He) and IT suffices for all their conversations.

Imam Abu Bakr Ibn Fawrak stated:

Hu (IT, He) is comprised of two letters:

1.    Ha (H sound) which exits from the inmost part of the throat (beyond which there are no sounds!)
2.    Waw (‘oo’ or ‘o’ sound) which is the outmost sound which exits from the end of the lips (there are no further human sounds beyond the lips!)

H sound of the Hu (IT, He) is the beginning for all transience and Waw (‘oo’ or ‘o’ sound) the end for all transience and the verse: "Hu (is) The Primordial First & The Endmost Last [57:3]" does Isharat (Points) at this meaning.

Some said: Indeed Allah is the Kashif (Unveiler) of all Sirr (Divine Observatory, Secret) by means of the world Hu (IT, He) and Allah is Kashif (Unveiler)  by means of what follows after Hu e.g. The Beautiful Divine Names. “

التحبير في التذكير
شرح اسماء لله الحسنى
الامام أبي القاسم عبدالكريم بن هوازن القشيري
فصل في معنى اسمه هو
اعلم أن هذا الاسم عند الطائفة  إخبار عن نهاية التحقق و هو عند أهل الظاهر مبتدأ يحتاج إلى خبر ليتم الكلام
و عند أهل الطريق لا يحتاج لأنه مفيد و لأنه كلام تام بدون شيء آخر يتصل به أو يضمر ذلك لاستهلاكهم في حقائق القرب
و استيلاء ذكر الحق على أسرارهم فلا يسبق إلى قلوبهم غيره و يكتفون به عن كل بيان
قال الإمام أبو بكر بن فورك قدس الله رؤحه هو حرفان هاء و واو فالهاء تخرج من أقصى الحلق و هو آخر المخارج
و الواو تخرج من الشفة و هو أول المخارج ف هو إشارة إلى ابتداء كل حادث و انتهاء كل حادث إليه و إليه الإشارة
بقوله تعالى هو الأول و الأخر
و قال بعض أهل الإشارة  إن الله تعالى كاشف الأسرار بقوله هو و كاشف القلوب بما عداه من الأسماء

Practically, we need or we make up a description or characterization to describe all ‘objects’ around us for a variety of different purposes. The need for description is terrifically strong within us e.g. when I buy a new car, I am obsessed by describing the car and all the activities surrounding the purchase of the car to my friend who is sitting in the car with me driving!

However this sense of description falls short for some objects e.g. try to describe the taste of honey or try to describe the feeling of being tickled, you will quickly discover several things :

1.    There are no innate/atomic linguistic constructions describing tastes or feelings
2.    As opposed to a car, the tastes and feelings are subject to the person’s experience e.g. some people find the taste of honey terrible and some people may not have any funny sensation when tickled
3.    You can only have conversations about taste and honey, if and only if, the listener has had full experience of the said tastes or feelings
4.    The value of the experiences of tasting and feeling cannot be enhanced by characterizing them with words or by conveying the experience to others, as happens when someone describes the instrumentation of a car to you to help you drive it better or faster or safer

What we understand as GOD in the English language is always followed by characterizations and descriptions similar to attempts to characterize or describe the taste of honey or the sensation of being tickled. There is no other word in English that allows for a non-descriptive identifier that deals with the Divine Presence. These characterizations often suffer from inadequacies due to the 4 items mentioned above and often render contradictory statements and descriptions.

Within the language of Sufism there is a word Hu or Huwa that is a form of a third person absent pronoun which is the description-less identifier replacing the word GOD. One can talk about the GOD without talking about the deification and without describing the actions of GOD, rather one identifies a peculiar feeling of a PRESENCE that is felt by some people, a presence that is watching and is close. That is called Hu (IT, He).

Those who are immersed within the Divine Presence’s Qurb (Nearness) may not and cannot find words describing their experiences since where they have these experiences there is no one else! And where they have the experiences there are no words!

But this feeling of someONE being very close to us is quite strong in some people who feel and experience this presence without any need for characterization.

Ajal: Stipulated Deadline   

6:2 "Hu/Huwa (IT, He), Al-Ladhi (That which, He Who), created you from mud":

Allah established the origin of man from mud and called upon it to behold the bewilderments of the Voyage and exposed it to what had never been exposed to any other creature; the instructive consideration here is not in the origin but in the arrival to the destination; the arrival to the destination is Qurb (Divine Nearness) and yet the origination is the dust! The origin is mangled droplets of liquid while the Wasl (Arrival) is Qurb (Divine Nearness).

'Thumma (Then with delay) did Qadha (Primordial Decision) for a stipulated term, and with Hu (IT) another stipulated term':

A stipulated deadline was established for the period of testing (trials and tribulations, this life); then, after some delay, a deadline was established for the beginning of the benevolence; the Ajal (Deadline) for testing is in this life and the Ajal (Deadline) for the beginning of the benevolence in the hereafter. Wasl (Arrival) has no duration as opposed to this life which has a duration and deadline (Ajal). For the Wujud (Being) there is a beginning of time and yet after the dawn of the Tauhid’s (Divine Oneness’) suns there is perpetual light and no sunset.

تفسير لطائف الإشارات / القشيري (ت 465 هـ) مصنف و مدقق
قراءة الآية
فتح صفحة القرآن
الانتقال الى صفحة القرآن
{ هُوَ ٱلَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِّن طِينٍ ثُمَّ قَضَىۤ أَجَلاً وَأَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى عِندَهُ ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ تَمْتَرُونَ }
أثبت الأصل من الطين وأدعها عجائب (السير) وأظهر عليها ما لم يظهر على مخلوق، فالعِبْرَةُ بالوَصْلِ لا بالأصل؛ فالوَصْلُ قُرْبَةٌ وَالأصل تُرْبةٌ، الأصل من حيث النَّطفة والقطرة، والوصل من حيث القربة والنَّصرة.
قوله { ثُمَّ قَضَى أَجَلاً وَأَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى عِندَهُ }: جعل للامتحان أجلاً، ثم جعل للامتنان أجلاً، فَأَجَلُ الامتحان في الدنيا، وأَجَلُ الامتنان في العُقْبى.
ويقال ضَرَبَ للطلب أجلاً وهو وقت المهلة، ثم عقبه بأجل بعده وهو وقت الوصلة؛ فالمهلة لها مدًى ومنتهى، والوصلة بلا مدًى ولا منتهى؛ فوقتُ الوجودِ له ابتداء وهو حين تطلع شموس التوحيد ثم يتسرمد فلا غروب لها بعد الطلوع.

Ibn Kathir
'Thumma (Then with delay) did Qadha (Primordial Decision) for a stipulated term, and with Hu (IT) another stipulated term':

Ibn Abbas said: the first mention of the Ajal (Deadline) is that of death and the second mention is the hereafter.

تفسير تفسير القرآن الكريم/ ابن كثير (ت 774 هـ)
وقولُه: { ثُمَّ قَضَىۤ أَجَلاً وَأَجَلٌ مُّسمًّى عِندَهُ } قال سعيد بن جُبَير، عن ابن عباس: { ثُمَّ قَضَىۤ أَجَلاً } ، يعني: الموت، { وَأَجَلٌ مُّسمًّى عِندَهُ } يعني: الآخرة، وهكذا رُوِي عن مجاهد وعكرمة وسعيد بن جُبَير، والحسن وقَتادَة والضحَّاكِ، وزيد بن أسلَم وعَطِيَّة والسدي، ومقاتل بن حيان وغيرهم. وقولُ الحسن في رواية عنه: { ثُمَّ قَضَىۤ أَجَلاً } وهو ما بين أن يخلق إلى أن يموت { وَأَجَلٌ مُّسمًّى عِندَهُ } وهو ما بين أن يموت إلى أن يبعث، هو يرجع إلى ما تقدم، وهو تقدير الأجل الخاص، وهو عمر كل إنسان، وتقدير الأجل العام، وهو عمر الدنيا بكمالها، ثم انتهائها وانقضائها وزوالها،! وانتقالها والمصير إلى الدار الآخرة. وعن ابن عباس ومجاهد: { ثُمَّ قَضَىۤ أَجَلاً } يعني: مدة الدنيا، { وَأَجَلٌ مُّسمًّى عِندَهُ } يعني: عمر الإنسان إلى حين موته،

The Imminent Doubt  

“Know that the human being when it is formed into the egg-sperm denies ( the possibility of) his very metamorphosis into a shaped human being in the upcoming times, and then again while a shaped human being s/he requires much rationalization about the resurrection after death due to the same denial”

 تفسير روح البيان في تفسير القرآن/ اسماعيل حقي (ت 1127 هـ)
واعلم ان الانسان وقت كونه نطفة ينكر صبرورته بشرا سويا في الزمان الآتى وعند تصوره بصورة البشر يلزمه الحجة فانكاره الحشر انكار عين ما كان ف

In whatever stage the human being resides within, s/he must doubt the upcoming stage! It is the nature of the human being as is his anatomy.

Huwa Allahu: Hu (IT, He) is Allah  

6: 3 "And Hu/Huwa (IT, He) (is) Allah, within the heavens and within the earth":

In Arabic, someone is ‘within’ some affair means that person is running that affair i.e. Allah is within the heavens and within the earth means Allah is governing the affairs of the heavens and the earth.

"And Hu/Huwa (IT, He) (is) Allah": Is a complete sentence. Then a new sentence starts: "within the heavens and within the earth" i.e. what is made secret and what is made patent in heavens and in earth is known by Allah.

تفسير مفاتيح الغيب ، التفسير الكبير/ الرازي (ت 606 هـ)
الأول: أن قوله { وَهُوَ ٱللَّهُ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَاتِ وَفِى ٱلأَرْضِ } يعني وهو الله في تدبير السموات والارض كما يقال: فلان في أمر كذا أي في تدبيره وإصلاح مهماته، ونظيره قوله تعالى: { وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى فِى ٱلسَّماء إِلَـٰهٌ وَفِى ٱلاْرْضِ إِلَـٰهٌ } والثاني: أن قوله { وَهُوَ ٱللَّهُ } كلام تام، ثم ابتدأ وقال: { فِي ٱلسَّمَـٰوَاتِ وَفِى ٱلاْرْضِ يَعلمُ سِرَّكُمْ وَجَهْرَكُمْ } والمعنى إله سبحانه وتعالى يعلم في السموات سرائر الملائكة، وفي الأرض يعلم سرائر الإنس والجن.ومما يقوي هذه التأويلات أن قولنا: وهو الله نظير قولنا هو الفاضل العالم، وكلمة هو إنما تذكر ههنا لإفادة الحصر،

In the verse, "6: 3 And Hu/Huwa (IT, He) (is) Allah, within the heavens and within the earth,"
What is the ‘agent’ that is ‘within’ the heavens and the earth ?. One of the answers is: Hu (IT, He) is Allah the deity worshiped within the heavens and the earth (i.e. worshiped by the residents of the heavens and the earth). As the phrase ‘Zaid is the Khalifa within the east and within the west’ means Zaid’ rule is obeyed within the east and the west of the land.

  تفسير الجامع لاحكام القرآن/ القرطبي (ت 671 هـ)
قوله تعالى: { وَهُوَ ٱللَّهُ فِي ٱلسَّمَاوَاتِ وَفِي ٱلأَرْضِ } يقال: ما عامل الإعراب في الظرف من { فِي ٱلسَّمَاوَاتِ وَفِي ٱلأَرْضِ }؟ ففيه أجوبة: أحدها ـ أي وهو الله المعظَّم أو المعبود في السموات وفي الأرض؛ كما تقول: زيد الخليفة في الشرق والغرب أي حُكْمه.

6: 3 "And Hu/Huwa (IT, He) (is) Allah, within the heavens and within the earth":
Earth is Wujud (Being) and Heavens is the Nafs (Selves).

Hu (IT, He) knows what you hide and what you reveal: What we hide is the Divine Secret of our Khalif-ship (Deputation) to accept and absorb the flash-flood of Divinity and what we reveal is our carnality.
Therefore Allah is acknowledging that: I do know your hidden characterization within the Ghayb (Divine Unseen) as well as your shortcomings within the Shahada (The Observable Universe):

Lo! That human life
To be wasted like animals eating and sleeping

That human being with effort
Can reach the very lofty state of the angels

 تفسير روح البيان في تفسير القرآن/ اسماعيل حقي (ت 1127 هـ)
 وفى التأويلات النجمية { وهو الله فى السموات } اى فى سموات الوجود { وفى الارض } اى فى ارض النفوس { يعلم سركم } الذى اودع فيكم وهو سر الخلافة الذى اختص به الانسان لقبول الفيض الالهى { وجهركم } اى ما هو ظاهر منكم من الصفات الحيوانية والاحوال النفسانية
بس حق سبحانه وتعلى مى فرمايدركه من اسرار خصائص شما درتيه غيب ميدانم وآثار نقائص شما درعالم شهادت مى شناسم وديكر ميدانم آنجه شما ميكنيد ازعلاكه سبب ترقى باشدبر درجات انسانية ياموجب تنزل بدركات حيوانيه ودانستن اين داناى سالك را بران دارد كه باصلاح وتزكيه اعمال مشغول شده ازحيز استيفاء حظوظ حيوانى برذروه استئناس بانعيم روحانى متصاعد كردد]
حيف باشد كه عمر انسانى           جون بهايم بخواب وخور كذرد
آدمى ميتواند از كوشش           كه مقام فرشته در كذرد


Azizam (My dearest love) these verses are about nothing save your Azizat (Your heart throbbing Beloved); and within the perpetual adoration of that Beloved’s Singleton Presence, a peep-hole is perforated, for you here and now to glance at the Qidam to behold the actualities of That Beloved’s actions and characterizations.

The creation of the cosmos, and its coupling with light and darkness(s), was for the very purpose of love and loving and nothing else!

Before the creation of the cosmos, there was only One i.e. the lover the beloved the love and loving were nothing but One! After the ‘partition’, the lover separated from the Beloved and from the Love, and though there is only One actual Beloved, the lovers loved many ‘potential’ beloved(s)—As there was One Light and yet after the partition there are many darkness(s)!

And then, after some time and some events, many lovers—within the deep past—found other beloved(s) thus remaining eternally veiled within the darkling cocoon of their Nafs (Self), that darkness(s) within which many beloved(s) can potentially be loved!

Ey Aziz-eh Jānam (O dearest to my soul) you have been deliberately partitioned from the waters and minerals of this earth and yet you are nothing but a sponge made from mud, a sponge absorbing all the spectrum of the Divine Rays.

Nāzaninam (My caressing beloved) you will only expire upon the completion of the ‘absorption period’; like a sponge that absorbed all it could and then—after sometime—no more! And that ‘no more’ is your Ajal (Deadline), when you are saturated with all that Nur (Divine Light) you could absorb.

Ey Nūr-eh Chasmānam (O light of my eyes) all that is around you whether corporeal, botanical, carnal, psychological or spiritual is but for a single purpose: constructions, circumstances and experience within all of which—you are to fall in love, for your heart to be shattered into a million smithereens; for your inside to become outside; for you to meta-morph from an Amnesiac (Insan) into an obsessive lover who shall do nothing but love; and then become an Eye shortly before your death to behold: Hu is Allah! The Deified Beloved of heavens and earth, The Absolutely Absent.

© 2007-2002,  Dara O. Shayda, Dr. Hind Rifai