The Defects of The Nafs (Self)

By Sheikh Abdur-Rahman Sullami

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Table of Contents

The Defects of The Nafs (Self)
One: Prolonging the violations while falsely assuming he is at the gates of salvation 
Two: Finding comfort with a mere verbal repentance  
Three: The ailment of hypocrisy apparent in states of the heart and dealings with people   
Four: Spiritual languor  
Five: Lack of pleasure in obeisance   
Six: Hopes gain for his Nafs (Self) where good things are provided and people find him as bad omen   
Seven: Claiming (spiritual) Life without any movement, and Claiming Wusul (Reaching to Allah) without rising up   
Eight: Deviation due to the Nafs's (Self's) disposition and Nafs is never intimate with Allah   
Nine: The Nafs (Self) feels intimate with evil ideas entering the mind, for the latter causes the Nafs to be controlled by violations (against Allah's wish)   
Ten: Negligence and carelessness   
Eleven: Seeing the Nafs (Self)   
Twelve: Focusing on the faults of others instead of one's own   
Thirteen: Focus on appearances   
Fourteen: Seeking return for deeds   
Fifteen: Absence of pleasure for obedience   
Sixteen: Laziness   
Seventeen: Seeking leadership through knowledge and with arrogance   
Eighteen: Excessive talking   
Nineteen: Trespassing the limits in satisfaction and anger   
Twenty: Discontent with what Allah chose for Nafs (Self) when she sought help from Allah   
Twenty One: Excessive Tamanni (Longing)   
Twenty Two: Focus on worldly affairs and its inhabitants   
Twenty Three: Showing off with acts of obeisance and adorning his Nafs (Self) with them, and love to have people to notice them   
Twenty Four: The Greed   
Twenty Five: Coveting flourishing the world and excessively developing   
Twenty Six: Beautifying Nafs's (Self's) own deeds and feeling repugnant for deeds of others than Her   
Twenty Seven: Sympathy for the Nafs (Self)   
Twenty Eight: Fight off and defending the Nafs (Self)   
Twenty Nine: Ambitions for the benevolence of people and not for the benevolence of Allah   
Thirty: Ambition and anxiety over livelihood/provisions   
Thirty One: Anxious to guide other people with such precise attention to details, while let go off his own Nafs (Self)   
Thirty Two: Continuing with sins   
Thirty Three: Perpetually seeking joy, happiness and comfort   
Thirty Four: Following the desires of the Nafs (Self)   
Thirty Five: Tendency towards socializing with the brothers   
Thirty Six: Being intimate with the Nafs (Self) and seeing her all beautiful   
Thirty Seven: Nafs's (Self's) cessation of obeisance by following the lusts  
Thirty Eight: Sense of security against the Satan   
Thirty Nine: To portray the Nafs (Self) as a righteous without sincerity   
Forty: Lack of consideration for Allah's lax treatment of him  
Forty One: Love of exposing the faults of the brothers and companions   
Forty Two: Absence of caring for his Hāla (Momentary state of the heart) for excess and scantiness   
Forty Three: Belittling Muslims and arrogance over them   
Forty Four: Indolence and lack of verve to perform the orders of Shariat (Prophetic ways)   
Forty Five: Enrobing with the garment of the righteous without their righteous deeds   
Forty Six: Wasting the time wherein there is no business of him   
Forty Seven: The Anger   
Forty Eight: The Lying   
Forty Nine: Being Greedy and Stingy   
Fifty: Prolonged false hopes   
Fifty One: Being deceived by the people's praise   
Fifty Two: Avidity   
Fifty Three: The Envy   
Fifty Four: Insisting upon sins while longing for Divine Mercy   
Fifty Five: Lack of enthusiastic and willing response for obeisance of Allah   
Fifty Six: Greed for accumulation and denying others  
Fifty Seven: Accompanying those oppose Allah's orders   
Fifty Eight: The Negligence   
Fifty Nine: Choosing Idleness and yet dress it up as reliance upon Allah, as such facing people  
Sixty: Escaping from 'Ilm (Knowledge) towards false-claims and false-states  
Sixty One: Magnifies his offerings   
Sixty Two: Appearing as poor while having enough  
Sixty Three: Seeing himself better than this brothers and acquaintances  
Sixty Four: Pushing the Nafs (Self) exclusively for pleasures and comforts   
Sixty Five: The Nafs's (Self's) ignorance confused with the Creator's Blessings   
Sixty Six: Seeking lawfulness within the ambiguities   
Sixty Seven: Expanding the Nafs's (Self's) habitual slip-ups   
Sixty Eight: Nafs (Self) deceiving herself by Karāmāt (Benevolences bestowed upon)   
Sixty Nine: Love to socialize with the rich   

See Also
Ma'refat (Gnosis) of Nafs 
Ma’refat (Gnosis) of Some Attributes of the Nafs   
On Relationship Between The Divine Ma’refat (Gnosis) & Ma’refat of The Nafs               
Ibn Sina's Theory of Nafs: 
Iqbal's Khudi (I-ness) vs. Nafs: 

One: Prolonging the violations while falsely assuming he is at the gates of salvation

Defect: He thinks he is at the door of salvation knocking at the door with Dhikr (Remembrance) and obeisance though the door is already wide open! However he closed the door for his Nafs (Self) by excessive violations as was narrated that once Rābi'a came by a gathering of Salih Murri and Salih asked her: The person who incessantly knocks on the door probably has it opened! And Rābi'a replied: The door is wide open and you are running away from it, how you can reach your destiny if you start the first step from the wrong.

How can a slave be saved from the defects of his Nafs (Self) and yet he is the one who sets the lusts free upon her, or how can he be saved from following the desires and he is not rebuking the violations?

Ibn Abi Dunya said about some sages' statements: How do you think you will enjoy clarity and awareness and yet there are defects with you, and how can you be saved and you are sinning?

Therapy: The healing is proposed by Saqti: Voyaging the Path of Guidance, lawfully obtained provision, and the perfection of piety.

1-    التمادي في المخالفات مع التوهم أنه على باب النجاة
فمن عيوب النفس: أنه يتوهم أنه على باب نجاته يقرع الباب بفنون الأذكار والطاعات والباب مفتوح، ولكنه أغلق باب الرجوع على نفسه بكثرة المخالفات، كما أخبرني الحسن بن يحي، قال سمعت جعفر بن محمد يقول، سمعت ابن مسروق يقول: مرت رابعة بمجلس صالح المري، فقال صالح: ((من أدمن قرع الباب يوشك أن يفتح له)). فقالت رابعة: ((الباب مفتوح وأنت تفر منه، كيف تصل إلى مقصد أخطأت الطريق منه في أول قدم)).
فكيف ينجو العبد من عيوب نفسه وهو الذي أطلق لها الشهوات، أم كيف ينجو من إتباع الهوى وهو لا ينزجر عن المخالفات؟
سمعت محمد بن أحمد بن حمدان، يقول سمعت محمد بن إسحاق الثقفي يقول: سمعت ابن أبي الدنيا يقول: قال بعض الحكماء: ((لا تطمع أن تصحو وفيك عيب، ولا تطمع أن تنجو وعليك ذنب. ومداواة هذه الحالة بما قاله السري السقطي وهو: سلوك سبيل الهدى، وطيب الغذاء، وكمال التقى.

Two: Finding comfort with a mere verbal repentance

Defect: When Nafs cried for her sins, she found solace and fully comforted.

Therapy: Keep the grief going even after your outburst cries, until you experience no comfort, feel the humility of weeping within the sorrow, and let your tears be the increase of your sorrow and grief (for your Self's evil).

2-    الاسترواح بظاهر التوبة دون المداومة عليها.
ومن عيوبها: إذا بكت تفرجت ثم استروحت
ومداواتها: ملازمة الكمد مع البكاء حتى لا يفزع إلى الاسترواح، فهو أن يبكي ذلاً، ولا يبكي من الحزن يستروح من بكائه، ومن بكاؤه في الحزن يزيده البكاء كمداً وحزناً.

Three: The ailment of hypocrisy apparent in states of the heart and dealings with people

Defect: Seeking the relief from the loss from someone who has no power whatsoever and much hope to benefit from the one who has nothing, struggling for daily provisions and yet he is fully provided for (by Allah).

Therapy: Return to healthy and correct faith as Allah had informed us: If Allah do touch you with hurt, there is none can remove it but Hu: if Hu does design some benefit for you, there is none can keep back Hu's favor: Hu causes it to reach whomsoever of Hu's servants Hu pleases. And Hu is the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful [10:107]. And again from Hu's Divine Words: There is no moving creature on earth but its sustenance depends on Allah. Hu knows the time and place of its definite abode and its temporary deposit: All is in a clear Record [11:6].

And it would be all right for him, once he views the weakness of the people and their helplessness, so he would know that whoever in need cannot satisfy other's needs. And for he who is helpless it is impossible to fix the problems of another person, therefore by these observations he is freed from the defect and returns completely and unconditionally to Allah.

Note: Don't ask anything from anyone, even a smile, and don't expect anything from anyone even a Salaam. It is true that you cannot live by yourself and you need the help of others in almost every circle of your life, but do not expect, if Allah wishes, Hu shall make someone an instrument for your aid but do not wish and yearn for his or her help directly bypassing Allah's Authority and Presence.  

3-    مرض النفاق الظاهر أثره في الحالات والمعاملات.
ومن عيوبها: استكشافه الضر ممن لا يملكه، و رجاؤه في النفع ممن لا يقدر عليه، واهتمامه بالرزق وقد تكفل له بالرزق.
ومداواتها: الرجوع إلى صحة الإيمان بما أخبر الله في كتابه     وَإِن يَمْسَسْكَ اللّهُ بِضُرٍّ فَلاَ كَاشِفَ لَهُ إِلاَّ هُوَ وَإِن يُرِدْكَ بِخَيْرٍ فَلاَ رَآدَّ لِفَضْلِهِ يُصَيبُ بِهِ مَن يَشَاء مِنْ عِبَادِهِ وَهُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ     {يونس:107} الآية، وإلى  وَمَا مِن دَآبَّةٍ فِي الأَرْضِ إِلاَّ عَلَى اللّهِ رِزْقُهَا وَيَعْلَمُ مُسْتَقَرَّهَا وَمُسْتَوْدَعَهَا كُلٌّ فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ    {هود:6}. ويصح له هذا الحال إذا نظر إلى ضعف الخلق و عجزهم، فيعلم أن كل من يكون محتاجا لا يقدر على قضاء حاجة غيره، ومن يكون عاجزاً لا يمكنه أن يصلح أسباب غيره فيسلم من هذه الخطيئة ويرجع إلى ربه بالكلية.

Four: Spiritual languor

Defect: Nafs's (Self's) languor for performing spiritual activities e.g. Dhikr (Remembrance) worship and so on, which the Nafs (Self) previously had the energy to perform but somehow she became languid. The next level of shortcoming is when the Nafs (Self) does not care about her languor, the worse next level she does not even recognize this languor, and the final level is when he falsely assumes that she is actually doing great with so much energy. And these are all the result of lack of gratitude for Allah when the person was performing spiritual activities i.e. thinking that it was his Nafs (Self) performing good deeds and not an endowment from Allah! Therefore the shortness of gratitude removed the person from the level of high spiritual energy to a lower one i.e. the level of shortcomings, and deceptively concealed his faults, and beautified his shameful acts and was said by Allah: Is he, then, to whom the evil of his conduct is made alluring, so that he looks upon it as good [35:8].

Therapy: Perpetually seeking sanctuary with Allah! Keep on Dhikr (Divine Remembrance) and recitation of the Hu's book, lawful acquisition of the provisions, and upholding the respect and dignity for Muslims, and asking the Auliā (Close friends of Allah) to pray for him to be spiritually elevated that Allah may endow him with the opening of a passageway for servitude and obeisance.

4-    فتر فيها مع عدم الاهتمام بالفترة.
ومن عيوبها: فتر فيها في حقوق كان يقوم بها قبل ذلك، وأتم منه عيباً من لا يهتم بتقصيره و فتره، و أكثر من ذلك عيباً من لا يرى فترته و تقصيره، ثم أكثر منه عيباً من يظن أنه متوفر مع فترته وتقصيره، وهذا من قلة شكره في وقت توفيقه للقيام بهذه الحقوق، فلما قل شكره أزيل عن مقام التوفر إلى مقام التقصير، و يستر عليه نقصانه، واستحسن قبايحه، قال الله تعالى:   أَفَمَن زُيِّنَ لَهُ سُوءُ عَمَلِهِ فَرَآهُ حَسَنًا {فاطر:8}.
والخلاص من ذلك: [دوام] الالتجاء إلى الله تعالى، وملازمة ذكره وقراءة كتابه، والبحث عن [مطعمه] وتعظيم حرمة المسلمين، وسؤال أولياء الله الدعاء له بالرد إلى الحالة الأولى لعل الله تعالى أن يمن عليه بأن يفتح عليه سبيل خدمته وطاعته.\

Five: Lack of pleasure in obeisance

Defect: The person obeys, follows through the religious acts, makes Dhikr (Remembrance) and yet finds no pleasure whatsoever. Since his obedience is vitiated polluted with Ria (Menpleasing) or the scantiness of sincerity within or has forsaken some Prophetic Tradition (Sunna).

Therapy: Making the Nafs (Self) to seek sincerity and persisting on observing all Prophetic Traditions in all affairs, and correct start for everything in order for a correct end.

5-    أن يطيع ولا يجد لطاعته لذة.
ومن عيوبها: أن يطيع ولا يجد لطاعته لذة ذلك، لشوب طاعته بالرياء، وقلة إخلاصه في ذلك، أو ترك سنة من السنن.
ومداواتها: مطالبة النفس بالإخلاص وملازمة السنة في الأفعال، [وبتصحيح] مبادئ أموره يصح له منتهاها.  

Six: Hopes gain for his Nafs (Self) where good things are provided and people find him as bad omen

Defect: That if he is in situations where good is offered, he hopes to gain from it, and if such happened i.e. he attends such good events the people regard him as bad portent. And for that reason some of the past pious if asked the question: How did you find the people? Answer: I saw people that had I not been with them, they would have had much hope in Allah's forgiveness! And such is the way of the people who are awakened.

Therapy: To know, that even if Allah forgave his sins indeed Allah saw him committing such wrongdoings and to feel ashamed (to be seen by Allah as a criminal), and he supposes the evil from his Nafs, as was said by Fudhil Ibn Ayyadh: I feel ashamed even if You forgive me. That is by realization that Allah has full knowledge about him and beholds him.  

6-    رجاء الخير لنفسه في حضور المشاهد والناس يتشاءمون من حضوره.
ومن عيوبها: أن يرجو لنفسه الخير في حصول مشاهد الخير، ولو تحقق لا يسر أهل المشهد من شؤم حضوره، كما قيل لبعض السلف: كيف رأيت أهل الموقف؟ فقال: ((رأيت أقواماً لولا أي كنت معهم لرجوت الله أن يغفر لهم)) هكذا طريق أهل اليقظة.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أن الله وإن غفر له ذنوبه فقد رآه مرتكباً على الخطايا والمخالفات يستحي من ذلك، ويسيء بنفسه الظن، كما قال الفضيل بن عياض: ((و سوأتاه منك وإن غفرت)) وذلك لتحققه بعلم الله فيه و نظره إليه.

Seven: Claiming (spiritual) Life without any movement, and Claiming Wusul (Reaching to Allah) without rising up

Defect: You are not made spiritually alive unless you make your Nafs (Self) die i.e. you will not have life in Hereafter unless you died in this life, and you should be given life with Allah unless you died from other than Allah, as was said by Yahya Bin Mu'az: He who is close to Allah, does so by destroying his Nafs therefore Allah preserves his Nafs for him. And the latter shall prevent her (Nafs) from her desires and carry her (Nafs) pushing her to do what she dislikes, for Nafs does not reconcile with Allah.  
Therapy: Not sleeping, starving and thirsting, riding what opposes the human nature and Nafs, forbidden her from desires, as I heard Yahya Bin Mu'az saying: Starvation is Allah's nourishment for the bodies of the Siddiqin (The Truthful Folks).  

7- دعوى الحياة بلا حركة، ودعوى الوصول بلا نهضة من وطنها.
ومن عيوبها: أنك لا تحييها حتى تميتها، أي لا تحييها للآخرة حتى تميتها عمن الدنيا، ولا تحيى بالله حتى تموت عن الأغيار، ولذلك قال يحي بن معاذ: (( من تقرب إلى الله بتلف نفسه حفظ الله عليه نفسه)) وذلك أن يمنعها عن شهواتها، ويحملها على مكارهها، فإن النفس لا تألف الحق أبداً.
ومداواتها: السهر والجوع والظمأ، وركوب مخالفة الطبع والنفس، ومنعها عن الشهوات. سمعت محمد بن ابراهيم بن الفضيل يقول: سمعت محمد بن الرومي يقول: سمعت يحي بن معاذ يقول: ((الجوع طعام به يقوي الله أبدان الصديقين)).

Eight: Deviation due to the Nafs's (Self's) disposition and Nafs is never intimate with Allah

Defect: Nafs (Self) does not befriend Allah whatsoever, and the obeisance is against her disposition and nature, and this is much increased when the Nafs (Self) follows the desires and obeys the lusts.

Therapy: Exiting from the Nafs (Self) completely towards her Allah, Ibn Zadan was asked: If a slave exits (from his Nafs) towards Allah what is the passageway for this exit? He answered: Not to return to what caused him originally to exit the straight Path and safeguard every moment not to appear in presence of Allah doing mistakes. So then I said: This is the rule for exiting from the Wujud (Being) what is the rule for exiting from the 'Adam (Non-being)? He replied: Finding sweetness in what is continued, instead of the bitterness what has passed.

8-    انحراف السجية فلا تألف الحق أبداً.
ومن عيوبها: أنها لا تألف الحق أبداً، والطاعات خلاف سجيتها وطبعها، و يتولد أكثر ذلك من متابعة الهوى وإتباع الشهوات.
ومداواتها: الخروج منها بالكلية إلى ربها، كما سمعت محمد بن عبدالله الرازي يقول: سمعت أبا القاسم البصري ببغداد يقول: سئل ابن زادان عن العبد إذا خرج إلى الله على أي أصل يخرج؟ قال: ((على أن لا يعود إلى ما منه خرج وحفظ عن ملاحظة ما يبدو منه إلى الله)) فقلت: هذا حكم من خرج عن وجود، فكيف حكم من خرج عن عدم؟ فقال: وجود الحلاوة في المستأنف عوضاً من المرارة في السالف.

Nine: The Nafs (Self) feels intimate with evil ideas entering the mind, for the latter causes the Nafs to be controlled by violations (against Allah's wish)

Defect: The Nafs (Self) loves to allow evil ideas to enter the mind and loves to see her owner acting upon them against Allah's wish.

Therapy: To prevent evil ideas from entering the mind from the very beginning, so the Nafs (Self) is not controlled by them. And that is achieved by being in perpetual Dhikr (Remembrance) and feeling the fear that Allah knows what you do in private as people know what you do in public; and he feels the Haya (Timidity) for correcting himself in front of people but not correcting himself in the presence of Allah, and for that the Prophet said: Allah does not glance at your faces or your belongings, but looks at your hearts.

Ibrahim said: The beginning of the sin is when it enters the mind and if the owner of the Nafs (Self) does not reject it with disgust then it becomes whispers/obsessions, and if the owner of the Nafs (Self) does not make Jihad (Exertion of effort) against it, then it excites the desires seeking all kinds of lusts thus blocking the 'Aql (Intellect), 'Ilm (Knowledge) and Bayan (Expression).

9-    أنها تألف الخواطر الرديئة فتستحكم عليها المخالفات.
ومن عيوبها: أنها تألف الخواطر الرديئة فتستحكم، عليها المخالفات.
ومداواتها: رد تلك الخواطر في الابتداء لئلا تستحكم، وذلك بالذكر الدائم وملازمة الخوف بالعلم أن الله يعلم ما في سرك كما يعلم الخلق ما في علانيتك فتستحي منه أن تصلح للخلق موضع نظرهم ولا تصلح موضع نظر الحق، وقد قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: ((إن الله لا ينظر إلى صوركم ولا إلى أموالكم ولكن ينظر على قلوبكم)).
وسمعت أبا بكر الرازي يقول سمعت الحسن العلوي صاحب إبراهيم الخواص يقول سمعت إبراهيم يقول: ((أول الذنب الخطوة فإن تداركها صاحبها بالكراهية وإلا صارت وسوسة، فإن تداركها بالمجاهدة وإلا هاج منها الشهوة مع طلب الهوى فتصد العقل والعلم والبيان)).

Ten: Negligence and carelessness

Defects: Negligence and carelessness (to spirituality) and insistence on procrastination, and feeling the closeness of the false hopes and feeling the farness of the death.

Therapy: Junaid was asked: What is the way to cut off from all towards Allah? He answered: With repentance all insistence on doing wrong is dissolved, and Allah's dread makes the procrastination to go away, and hope in Allah motivates to do good deeds, and Dhikr (Remembrance) for Allah no matter what the circumstances, and to humiliate the Nafs (Self) to force her feel the closeness of the death and the farness of the false hopes. How can a slave reach such a situation? Answer: By means of a heart that has Tafrid i.e. who sees all blessings from Allah including his own good deeds, and such a heart that is endowed with Tajrid i.e. who does righteous deeds not for any reward but because Allah deserves worship.

10-    الغفلة والتواني.
ومن عيوبها: الغفلة والتواني والإصرار والتسويف وتقريب الأمل وتبعيد الأجل.
ومداواتها: ما سمعت الحسين بن يحي يقول سمعت جعفر الحلوى يقول: سئل الجنيد كيف السبيل إلى الانقطاع إلى الله؟ فقال: ((بتوبة تحل الإصرار، وخوف يزيل التسويف، ورجاء يبعث على قصد مسالك العمل، وذكر الله على اختلاف الأوقات، وإهانة النفس بقربها من الأجل وبعدها عن الأمل)). قيل: فبم يصل العبد إلى هذا؟ فقال: (( بقلب مفرد فيه توحيد مجرد)).


Eleven: Seeing the Nafs (Self)

Defect: Seeing her (Nafs) and sympathizing with her.

Therapy: Seeing Allah's generosity over all things, in all times, would cause the blind eye to the Nafs (Self), as was said by Waseti: Closest to Allah's Hate is to see one's own Nafs (Self) and her deeds.

Note: O Wow! Look how great I am praying, Wonderful! How generous I am to the poor and Wow! For all this knowledge I have accumulated: These are examples of seeing one's own Nafs and her doing.

11-    رؤيتها نفسها.
ومن عيوبها: رؤيتها والشفقة عليها.
ومداواتها: رؤية فضل الله عليه في جميع الأحوال يسقط عنه رؤية النفس سمعت أبا بكر الرازي يقول سمعت الواسطي يقول: ((أقرب شيء إلى مقت الله رؤية النفس وأفعالها)).

Twelve: Focusing on the faults of others instead of one's own

Defect: Busied with other people's faults and leaving his own alone.

Therapy: Traveling, isolation from people and love for the righteous people and obeying their commands, and the least of that i.e. not being able to fix this defect of Nafs (Self) is to be silent about the faults of others and give them much excuse, and conceal their shame. Hoping much that Allah would correct this fault, as was said by the Prophet: Who conceals the fault of his Muslim brother, Allah conceals his faults, and who reveals the fault of his Muslim brother Allah shall do the same until scandals break out in his house! Zazan Al-Madayeni said: I saw people that were full of faults but they maintained silence about the faults of others and Allah concealed their faults, and I saw people that had no faults but were constantly bent on criticizing the faults of others and thus Allah made faults appear within them.

12-    الاشتغال بعيوب الناس عن عيوب نفسه.
ومن عيوبها: اشتغالها بعيوب الناس عما بها من عيوب.
ومداواتها: في الأسفار والانقطاع ومحبة الصالحين والائتمار بأوامرهم واقل ما فيه إذا لم يعمل في مداواة عيوب نفسه أن يسكت عن عيوب الناس ويعذرهم فيها، ويستر عليهم خزاياهم، رجاء أن يصلح الله بذلك عيوبه، فإن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: ((من ستر على أخيه المسلم، ستر الله عورته، ومن تتبع عورة أخيه المسلم تتبع الله عورته حتى يفضحه في جوف بيته)) سمعت محمد بن عبد الله بن شاذان يقول: سمعت زادان المدايني يقول))رأيت أقواماً من الناس لهم عيوب فسكتوا عن عيوب الناس فستر الله عيوبهم، وزالت عنهم تلك العيوب، ورأيت أقواماً لم تكن لهم عيوب اشتغلوا بعيوب الناس فصارت لهم عيوب)).


Thirteen: Focus on appearances

Defect: Busied adorning the appearances and show humility and false-fear of Allah due to the presence of people and yet in the heart there is no fear of Allah, and showing servitude for Allah and yet not feeling Allah's Presence.

Therapy: Focus on within, to preserve the way the person is alone, and make the light of that sincere privacy or the light of what is within, to shine on what is upon the surface, to adorn the appearances by this light from within i.e. to be adorned without adornments, venerable without having followers, mighty without having supporters and for that the Prophet said: Who corrected his secrecy/privacy Allah would correct his public appearance.

Note: It is highly recommended to spend time alone and worship and remember Allah within the solitude. Today too much emphasis is placed upon the congregation and while that is a must to attend, the Murid (Seeker) needs private time to seek. Spend time alone, like a slave awaiting the arrival of the master.

13-    الاشتغال بتزيين الظواهر.
ومن عيوبها: الاشتغال بتزيين الظواهر والتخشع من غير خشوع، والتعبد من غير حضور.
ومداواتها: الاشتغال بحفظ الأسرار ليزين أنوار باطنه أفعال ظاهره فيكون مزيناً من غير زينة، مهيباً من غير تبع، عزيزاً من غير عشيرة، ولذلك قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: ((من أصلح سريرته أصلح الله علانيته)).  

Fourteen: Seeking return for deeds

Therapy: To see his own shortcomings and lack of sincerity, to be cautious not to demand recompense adhering to Adab (Etiquette), to know that the One who makes the portions and destinies, Allah, gives him of this world and the world after, and from what he is depending on i.e. his own actions and powers, nothing sincere would come out.

14-    طلب العوض على أعمالها.
ومداواتها: رؤية تقصيره في عمله وقلة إخلاصه، فإن الكيس في علمه من اعرض عن طلب [الأعواض] أدباً وتورعاً عنه، صرفا عالماً بأن الذي قدر له يأتيه دنيا وآخرة، وأن الذي عليه لا يخرجه منه الإخلاص.

Fifteen: Absence of pleasure for obedience

Defect: This is caused by an ailing heart and betrayal of what was supposed to be concealed e.g. private worship.

Therapy: To eat from the Halal (Lawful Provision) and perpetual Dhikr (Remembrance), serving the righteous and seeking nearness to them and in all of these therapies cry to Allah begging to be healed from this defect.

15-    فقدان لذة الطاعة.
وذلك من سقم القلب وخيانة السر.
ومداواتها: أكل الحلال ومداومة الذكر، وخدمة الصالحين والدنو منهم والتضرع إلى الله تعالى في ذلك ليمُنَ الله على قلبه بالصحبة بزوال ظلمات الأسقام، فيجد عند [ذلك] لذة الطاعة.

Sixteen: Laziness

Defect: Laziness is the inheritance from satiation, the Nafs (Self) is strengthened when she satiates, and when she is strong she takes what is hers, and conquers the heart in order to reach her due portion of desires.

Therapy: Hunger, once the Nafs (Self) is hungry she will weaken and will not be able to get to her due portion of desires, meaning the heart conquers the Nafs (Self) and upon that triumph heart carries the Nafs (Self) towards obeisance thus removing the laziness and for that the Prophet said: For children of Adam, no container is filled worst than his stomach, few bites of food suffices for him to stand upright, but if he has to eat: one third food, one third drink and one third air.

16-    الكسل.
ومن عيوبها: الكسل وهو ميراث الشبع، فإن النفس إذا شبعت قويت، فإذا قويت أخذت بحظها، وغلبت القلب بوصولها إلى حظها.
ومداواتها: التجويع فإنها إذا جاعت عدمت حظها وضعفت، فغلب عليها القلب، فإذا غلب عليها حملها على الطاعة وأسقط عنها الكسل ولذلك قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: ((ما ملأ ابن آدم وعاء شراً من بطنه، بحسب بن آدم لقيمات يقمن صلبه، فإن كان ولابد ثلث للطعام، وثلث للشراب، وثلث للنفس)).

Seventeen: Seeking leadership through knowledge and with arrogance

Defects: Seeking leadership through knowledge and for arrogance, bragging and being pompous in presence of people.
Therapy: To see the endowments of Allah upon himself, and Allah made him like a container for Hu's commandments, to see the shortcoming of delivering the due gratitude for the knowledge and wisdom, commit to humbleness, compassion for people and admonishing them properly, as was narrated from the Prophet: The person who seeks knowledge to brag about with scholars, to argue with the ignorant showing off, to get the people's attention, he shall find his place and settle down in Fire. And because of that many of the past pious said: Who is increased in knowledge, better be increased in fear and humility (for Allah), for Allah has said: Only those with knowledge fear Allah [Fatir:28]. Someone called Shu'abi: O my scholar! And he replied: The scholar is the one who fears Allah (i.e. I am not fearful of Allah and therefore I cannot be called scholar).

17-    طلب الرئاسة بالعلم والتكبر.
ومن عيوبها: طلب الرئاسة بالعلم والتكبر، والافتخار به، والمباهاة على أبناء جنسه.
ومداواتها: رؤية مِنَة الله عليه في أن جعله وعاء لأحكامه، ورؤية تقصير شكره ن نعمة الله عليه بالعلم والحكمة، والتزام التواضع والانكسار، والشفقة على الخلق والنصيحة لهم، فإنه روي عن الني صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال: ((من طلب العلم ليباهي به العلماء أو ليماري به السفهاء، أو ليصرف به وجوه الناس إليه فليتبوأ مقعده في النار)). ولذلك قال بعض السلف: من ازداد علماً فليزدد خشية، فإن الله تعالى يقول:   إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاء   {فاطر:28} وقال رجل للشعبي: أيها العالم: فقال: (( إنما العالم من يخشى الله )).

Eighteen: Excessive talking

Defect: Excessive talking is born from two things: If the person wishes leadership and for that reason wishes people to see him and hear his eloquent speech, or scantiness of knowledge so by talking people are attracted to him.

Therapy: His realization that he shall be held responsible for his speech, his words are recorded as Allah has said: We are over you to protect/preserve (to record), the benevolent recorders [82:10,11].

Allah said: Not a word does he utter but there is a sentinel by him, ready (to note it) [50:18 ]. The Prophet said: (In Hell) Is there anything else that causes the people to fall on their faces, except the harvest of their tongues? And again the Prophet said: The words of Adam's children are not for him, they are against him. Except what was ordering good and forbidding evil. Allah said: In most of their secret talks there is no good: But if one exhorts to a deed of charity or justice or conciliation between men, (Secrecy is permissible): To him who does this, seeking the good pleasure of Allah, We shall soon give a reward of the highest (value) [4:114].

18-    كثرة الكلام.
ومن عيوبها: كثرة الكلام وإنما يتولد ذلك من شيئين إما طلبه رياسة، يريد أن يرى الناس علمه وفصاحته، أو قلة العلم بما يجلب عليه الكلام.
ومداواتها: تحقيقه بأنه مأخوذ بما يتكلم به، وأنه مكتوب عليه ومسئول عنه، لأن الله تعالى يقول: وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ  كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ    {الانفطار}10,11}.
وقال تعالى:  مَا يَلْفِظُ مِن قَوْلٍ إِلَّا لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ    {ق:18} وقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: (( البلاء مُوكلٌ بالمنطقِ)) وقال: (( وهل يَكب الناس على مناخرهم إلا حصائد ألسنتهم)) وقال عليه السلام: ((كلام ابن آدم عليه لا له إلا ما أمر بمعروف أو نهي عن منكر))، قال تعالى:  لاَّ خَيْرَ فِي كَثِيرٍ مِّن نَّجْوَاهُمْ إِلاَّ مَنْ أَمَرَ بِصَدَقَةٍ أَوْ مَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ إِصْلاَحٍ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ ابْتَغَاء مَرْضَاتِ اللّهِ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا   {النساء:114}.

Nineteen: Trespassing the limits in satisfaction and anger

Defect: If the Nafs (Self) is pleased and satisfied it goes overboard in praising the one who satisfied her, and if she is angered and then she blames to the point of trespassing the limits.

Therapy: Taming the Nafs (Self) with regards to the Truth and Justice until not going overboard if she is pleased and not blaming excessively when she is enraged. And this defect is increased as the insistence on doing good and preventing evil is decreased, as was said by the Prophet: Scatter dust upon the faces of the (insincere verbal) admirers.

19-    تجاوز الحق في الرضى والغضب.
ومن عيوبها: أنها إذا رضيت مدحت الراضي عنه فوق الحد، وإذا غضبت ذمته وتجاوزت الحد.
ومداواتها: رياضة النفس على الصدق والحق حتى لا تتعدى في مدح من رضي عنه، و لا ذم من سخط عليهن فغن أكثر ذلك من قلة المبالاة بالأوامر والنواهي، والنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: (( أحثوا في وجوه المداحين التراب )).

Twenty: Discontent with what Allah chose for Nafs (Self) when she sought help from Allah

Defect: Nafs (Self) seeks help and guidance from Allah and once Allah's choice is made clear, she is angered with discontent.

Therapy: To know that all he knows are the surface of the things, Allah knows equally the innermost-concealed and the outermost-revealed; Allah's choice has much more goodness that she choosing for herself. He knows that there are no other organizers than Hu, and if he is discontent with the decree there is no change possible, therefore he must comfort her with contentment with her destiny and relax.

20-    تسخطها فيما يختار الله لها مع استخارتها الله جل جلاله.
ومن عيوبها: أناه تستخير الله تعالى في أفعالها ثم تسخط فيما يختار لها.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أنه يعلم من الأشياء ظواهرها، والله يعلم سواءً علنها وحقائقها، فإن حسن اختيار الله له خير من اختياره لنفسه فيما اختاره لنفسه حالاً، ويعلم انه مدبر لا مدبر سواه، وان سخطه للقضاء لا يغر [ المقضي] فيلزم نفسه طريق الرضا بالقضاء و يستريح.

Twenty One: Excessive Tamanni (Longing)

Defect: Excess of Tamanni and this word means objecting to what Allah has ordained for fate and decree, and longing for some other outcome.

Therapy: To know that he has no idea what would be the consequence of his Tamanni, either good or evil, whether it would satisfy or discontent him. And once with certitude he drops the Tamanni from his Nafs (Self) returns to assent and submission, hence reposed and comforted. And for that reason the Prophet said: Do not make Tamanni/long for your death due some loss and instead say: Allah give me life for as long as there is goodness in life for me, and take me away when death is better for me. And again the Prophet admonished: If someone from amongst you has Tamanni/longing let him look at what he is longing for, for he may not know what is written for his longing.

21-    ومن عيوبها: كثرة التمني، والتمني هو الاعتراض على الله تعالى في قضائه وقدره.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أنه لا يدري ما يعقب التمني أيجره إلى خير أم شر، إلى ما يرضيه أو ما يسخطه، فإذا أيقن اتهام عاقبة تمنيه أسقط عن نفسه ذلك ورجع إلى الرضا و التسليم فيستريح، ولذلك قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: ((لا يتمَنَينَ أحدكم الموت لضر نزل به، وليقل اللهم أحيني ما كانت الحياة خيراً لي، وتوفني إذا كانت الوفاة خيراً لي)) ولذلك قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: ((إذا تمنى أحدكم فلينظر ما يتمنى فإنه لا يدري ما يكتب له من أمنيته)).

Twenty Two: Focus on worldly affairs and its inhabitants

Defect: Loving to be preoccupied with worldly affairs and its happenings.

Therapy: Busying with useful thoughts in all occasions, and that shall preoccupy him away from this world and its inhabitants, and he knows what does not concern him as to leave it, as the Prophet advised: The goodness and beauty of a person's Islam is to forsake what is not his business.

22-    الخوض في حديث الدنيا وأهلها.
ومن عيوبها: محبتها الخوض في أسباب الدنيا وحديثها.
ومداواتها: الاشتغال بالفكر الدائم في كل أوقاته، يشغله ذلك عن ذكر الدنيا وأهلها والخوض فيما هم فيه، ويعلم أن ذلك مما لا يعنيه فيتركه، لأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: ((من حسن إسلام المرء تركه مالا يعنيه)).

Twenty Three: Showing off with acts of obeisance and adorning his Nafs (Self) with them, and love to have people to notice them

Defect: Making his obeisance public and having much love for people to recognize his righteous deeds and he adorns his Self with them.

Therapy: To know that there is no good or evil for him in store with people, and making Jihad (Exerting effort) against his Nafs (Self) so she would seek sincerity to remove this defect from him, and indeed Allah said: And there were ordered nothing but to worship Allah sincerely and for Hu be the religion [Al-Bayyina:5]. The Prophet narrated from his Lord: He who did an action and shared that with someone other than Me (for the pleasure of someone else), indeed We are free from that and he is for the one he associated/shared the action with (he for the one who was meant to be pleased other than Allah).

23-    إظهار الطاعات والتزين بها، وحب أن يعلم الناس ذلك منه.
ومن عيوبها:إظهار طاعاتها ومحبة أن يعلم الناس منه ذلك أو يروه، والتزين بذلك عندهم.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أنه ليس إلى الخلق نفعه ولا ضره، ويجتهد في مطالبة نفسه بالإخلاص في أعماله ليزيل عنه هذا العيب، فإن الله تعالى يقول:  وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ حُنَفَاء {البينة:5}، والنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول حاكياً عن ربه عز وجل أنه قال: ((من عمل عملاً أشرك فيه غيري فأنا منه برئ وهو للذي أشرك)).


Twenty Four: The Greed

Defect: Being greedy.

Therapy: To know that his greed shall enter him into Ria (Menpleasing) and make him forget the sweetness of servitude and worship, and he is transformed into people's slave after Allah had emancipated him from offering his servitude to greed and Ria (Menpleasing). And the Prophet made 'Isti'azat (Seeking Refuge): I seek refuge to You from greediness that drags me to more greed and from greed for something that is not worthy. And this is the greed that seals his heart, and pushes towards the life of this world and makes him Zahid (Ascetic) for the life of the Hereafter.

24-    الطمع.
ومن عيوبها:الطمع.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أن طمعه يدخله في الرياء وينسيه حلاوة العبادة، ويصيره عبد العبيد بعد أن جعله الله حراً من عبوديتهم، وتعوذ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم من الطمع فقال: ((أعوذ بك من طمع يجر إلى طمع، ومن طمع في غير مطمع))، وهو الطمع الذي يطبع على قلبه فيرغبه في الدنيا ويزهده في الآخرة، و روي عن بعض السلف أنه قال: الطمع هو الفقر الحاضر، والغني الطامع فقير، والفقير المتعفف غني، والطمع هو الذي يقطع الرقاب وأنشد:

أيطمع في ليلى بوصل وإنما           يقطع أعناق الرجال المطامع.

Twenty Five: Coveting flourishing the world and excessively developing

Defect: Excessive coveting for this world.  (Covet for or be after)

Therapy: To know that this world is not a stable place for staying, and indeed the Hereafter is the everlasting world, and the intelligent man works for his final destination not for the journey's rest-places, and the rest-places ends as soon as he commences travel, hence work for the final destination: Know you (all), that the life of this world is but play and amusement, pomp and mutual boasting and multiplying, (in rivalry) among yourselves, riches and children [Hadid:20]; the Hereafter is the best for those who do right [Nisa:77]; But best for the righteous is the home in the Hereafter ['Araf:169]; The Hereafter, in the sight of thy Lord is for the Righteous [Zukhruf:35];       But the Hereafter is better and more enduring  ['A'la:17];  And verily the Hereafter will be better for thee than the present [Doha:4].  

25-    الحرص على عمارة الدنيا والتكثر منها.
ومن عيوبها حرصها على عمارة الدنيا والتكثر منها.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أن الدنيا ليست بدار قرار، وإن الآخرة دار مقر، والعاقل من يعمل لدار قراره لا لمراحل سفره، فإن المراحل تنقطع بالمقام في السفر فيعمل إلى ما إليه مآبه، قال الله تعالى:  اعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا لَعِبٌ وَلَهْوٌ وَزِينَةٌ وَتَفَاخُرٌ بَيْنَكُمْ وَتَكَاثُرٌ فِي الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَوْلَادِ    {حديد:20} ولأن الله تعالى يقول:  وَالآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنِ اتَّقَى  {النساء: 77}،  وَالدَّارُ الآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ    {الأعراف:169}    ,  وَالْآخِرَةُ عِندَ رَبِّكَ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ   {الزخرف:35}،    وَالْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَى  {الأعلى :17},   وَلَلْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لَّكَ مِنَ الْأُولَى  {الضحى:4}.

Twenty Six: Beautifying Nafs's (Self's) own deeds and feeling repugnant for deeds of others than Her

Defect: Admiring and beautifying what she has committed and feeling repugnance towards the deeds of others or what has opposed her.  

Therapy: Accusing his own Nafs (Self) that she is inclined towards evil, and having good feelings/assumptions about the people, feeling assured that he does not know their final judgment.

26-    استحسان أفعالها واستقباح أفعال غيرها.
ومن عيوبها: استحسان ما ترتكب من الأمور، واستقباح أفعال من يرتكبها أو يخالفه.
ومداواتها: اتهام النفس لأنها أمارة بالسوء وحسن الظن بالخلق لإمبهام العواقب.

Twenty Seven: Sympathy for the Nafs (Self)

Defect: Sympathy for the Nafs (Self) and unwavering support and advocacy for her.

Therapy: Opposing the Nafs (Self), scant preoccupation with her, and for that I heard from my grandfather: Who was benevolent to his Nafs (Self) became careless for his Din (Way, Religion).

27-    الشفقة عليها.
ومن عيوبها الشفقة على النفس والقيام بتعهدها ومداواتها الإعراض عنها، وقلة الاشتغال بها، ولذلك سمعت جدي رحمة الله عليه يقول: ((من كرمت عنده نفسه هان عليه دينه)).

Twenty Eight: Fight off and defending the Nafs (Self)

Defect: Taking revenge for the Nafs (Self) and being enraged for her sake and starting fights for her sake (making enemies for yourself by supporting her desires).

Therapy: Animosity against the Nafs (Self), rage against her, the love for the Din (Way, Religion), and rage when the violations are committed, as was narrated about the Prophet: he never took revenge for his Nafs (Self) except he took revenge when what Allah had forbidden was committed.

28-    الاندفاع للمدافعة عن النفس.
ومن عيوبها: الانتقام لها والخصومة عنها والغضب لها.
ومداواتها: عداوتها وبغضها، ومحبة الدين والغضب لارتكاب المناهي، كما روي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه ما انتقم لنفسه قط إلا أن تنتهك محارم الله فكان ينتقم.


Twenty Nine: Ambitions for the benevolence of people and not for the benevolence of Allah

Defect: Plunged into correcting her (Nafs) and so only on the surface of the things in order to adorn her for the people's eyes and neglecting to correct what is wrong deep within where Allah's Eye watches.

Therapy: To know with certainty that the people are benevolent to him for as much as Allah has allotted within their hearts, and to know that deeply inside is where Allah is glancing, and that place within is far more lofty and important than where the people view, as said by Allah: Indeed Allah is a watchful observer over you [The Women: 1], and the Prophet said: For sure Allah does not glance at your faces or your deeds but looks at your hearts.

29-    الاهتمام بإكرام الناس له، لا بإكرام الله.
ومن عيوبها: اشتغالها بالإصلاح الظاهر وزينة الناس، وغفلته عن إصلاح الباطن الذي هو موضع نظر الله عز وجل.
ومداواتها: أي يتيقن أن الخلق لا يكرمونه إلا بمقدار ما جعل الله له في قلوبهم ويعلم أن باطنه موضع نظر الله فهو أولى بالإصلاح من الظاهر الذي هو موضع نظر الخلق، قال الله تعالى:   إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا {النساء:1} وقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: (( إن الله لا ينظر إلى صوركم ولا إلى أعمالكم ولكن ينظر إلى قلوبكم)).

Thirty: Ambition and anxiety over livelihood/provisions

Defect: The Nafs (Self) is anxious and ambitious for acquisition of the provision and yet her provision is but guaranteed by Allah, and scantiness of her anxiety and ambitions for deeds that are made mandatory by Allah. (Deeds that can only be done by the person and no one else can do it on his behalf e.g. another person can perform Hajj on your behalf but you have to pray by yourself.)

Therapy: To know that Allah has guaranteed the sufficiency of his provision, as said by Allah: Allah is, That Which, created for then provided you with provisions [The Rome:40], and as Allah has no partners in creation, Allah has no partners in providing the provisions.

Hātam Al-'Asam said: No one arises at dawn and except the Satan quizzes him: What are you going to eat? What are you going to wear? Where are you going to reside? And I say to him defiantly: I shall eat the death, and wear the cerecloth (cloth the Muslims wrap the dead with) and shall reside in the grave.    

30-    الاهتمام بالرزق.
ومن عيوبها: اهتمامها بالرزق وقد ضمن الله ذلك، وقلة اهتمامها بعمل افترضه الله عليه لا يقوم عنه غيره.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أن الله الذي خلقه ضمن له كفاية رزقه، فقال عز وجل:  اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ رَزَقَكُمْ  { الروم:40} كما [لا يشرك] في الخلق[لا يشرك] في الرزق. سمعت محمد بن عبد الله يقول سمعت محمد بن عبيد يقول: (( يحكى عن حاتم الأصم أنه قال: ما من صباح إلا والشيطان يقول: ما تأكل اليوم وما تلبس وأين تسكن؟ وأقول له: آكل الموت وألبس الكفن وأسكن القبر)).

Thirty One: Anxious to guide other people with such precise attention to details, while let go off his own Nafs (Self)

Defect: Much love for talking about other people and focusing on detailed knowledge of how to purify the hearts of the others, and attract the attention of other people by his kind words.

Therapy: Action in accordance to the acquired knowledge, and to admonish the people with his actions and not by his words as was narrated Allah telling the Prophet Jesus: When you want to advise people advise your Nafs (Self) first, otherwise feel Haya (Timidity) for Me. The Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him said: During the Night of Ascension I passed by a people that their lips been cut off by pliers made from fire! So I asked who are these O Gabriel? And it replied: These are the speakers of your nation ordering people to do good but forgot their own Nafs (Self), although they read the Divine Book don't they ponder?

31-    الاهتمام بإرشاد الناس بدقائق التوجيه مع إهمال نفسه.
ومن عيوبها: حبها للكلام على الناس والخوض في [دقائق] العلوم [ليصفو به القلوب من الأغيار] ويصرف بحسن كلامه وجوه الناس إليه.
ومداواتها: الهمل بما يعلم، وأن يعظ الناس بفعله لا بقوله كما رُوي أن الله تبارك وتعالى أوحى إلى عيسى عليه السلام: ((إذا أردت أن تعظ الناس فعظ نفسك، فإذا اتعظت وإلا فاستحي مني)). وأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: ((مررت ليلة الإسراء بقوم تُقرَضُ شِفاهم بمقاريض من نار، فقلت من هؤلاء يا جبريل؟ فقال: هؤلاء الخطباء من أمتك يأمرون الناس وينسون أنفسهم وهم يتلون الكتاب أفلا يعقلون)).

Thirty Two: Continuing with sins

Defects: Excessive sinning and spiritual violations till the heart is hardened, harsh and remorseless.

Therapy: Excess of seeking forgiveness from Allah in every breath, perpetual fasting, Tahajjud (Later nightly prayers) and serving the good people, socializing with the pious, and attending the collective Dhikr (Remembrance) gatherings, that once a man complained to the Prophet about his heart becoming remorseless so the Prophet told him: Bring your heart close the Dhikr (Remembrance) gatherings. And the Prophet continued: I seek refuge to Allah seventy times a day. The Prophet said also: Once a slave committing a sin a black dot appears on his heart, and if he seeks forgiveness from Allah or repents then the dot goes away, and if sinned the second time another dot appears until his heart is all dark, not cognizant of any good or evil. Then the Prophet recited: By no means! but on their hearts is the stain of the (ill) which they do [83:14]. By no means! But on their hearts is the stain of the (ill) which they do.

32-    [التمادي في] الذنوب.
ومن عيوبها: كثرة الذنوب والمخالفات إلى أن يقسى القلب.
ومداواتها: كثرة الاستغفار والتوبة في كل نفس، ومداومة الصيام، والتهجد بالليل وخدمة أهل الخير، ومجالسة الصالحين، وحضور مجالس الذكر، فإن رجلاً شكى إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قسوة قلبه فقال: ((أدنه من مجالس الذكر))، وقال: (( إني لأستغفر الله في اليوم سبعين مرة)) قال: (( إن العبد إذا أذنب نكت في قلبه نكتة سوداء فإن تاب واستغفر الله ذهبت، فإن أذنب ثانياً نكت في قلبه نكتة أخرى إلى أن يصير القلب غيثاً لا يعرف معروفاً ولا ينكر منكراً)) ثم قرأ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم:  كَلَّا بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِم مَّا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ    {المطففين:14].


Thirty Three: Perpetually seeking joy, happiness and comfort

Defect: Due to the negligence, he seeks much short-lived joy and comfort.

Therapy: To gain consciousness and awaken to what is in front of his Nafs (Self) i.e. she is committing what is forbidden for him (person), for sure this world is a prison with no happiness or comfort in this jail, as the Prophet said: This world is the prison for the believer and the fake-paradise for the disbeliever. Therefore it necessitates that his daily livelihood and pleasures to be that of a prisoner not that of a comfortable free man.

33-    الفرح والسرور وطلب الراحة.
ومن عيوبها: سرورها [ وفرحها] وطلبها الراحة وتلك من نتائج الغفلة.
ومداواتها: التيقظ لما بين يديها وعلمها بتقصيرها فيما أمر به، وارتكابها ما نهى عنه، وأن هذه الدار له سجن لا سرور ولا راحة في السجن، فإن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: (( الدنيا سجن المؤمن وجنة الكافر)) فيجب أن يكون عيشه فيها عيش المسجونين لا عيش المستروحين، وحكي عن داود الطائي أنه قال: قطع نياط قلوب العارفين أحد الخلودين. وقال رجل لبشر الحافي: مالي أراك مهموماً؟ قال: لأني مطلوبه.

Thirty Four: Following the desires of the Nafs (Self)

Defect: Following the Nafs's (Self's) desires being agreeable with her and doing what she seeks after.

Therapy: To follow the orders of Allah: And he forbade the Nafs (Self) from desires [Al-Nazi'at, 40] and again: Indeed the Nafs (Self) is inclined towards evil [Yusu:53]. Matar Ad-Dari said: Carving the mountains into some shape with your bare nails is much easier than removing the lusts once they control the Nafs (Self).

34-    إتباعها هواها.
ومن عيوبها: إتباعها هواها وموافقة رضاها وارتكاب مراداتها.
ومداواتها: ما أمر الله به من قوله تعالى: وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ وَنَهَى النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْهَوَى  {النازعات:40} وقوله   إِنَّ النَّفْسَ لأَمَّارَةٌ بِالسُّوءِ{يوسف:53} وما روى مطر الداري أنه قال: لنحت الجبال بالأظافر أهون من زوال الهوى إذا تمكن من النفس

Thirty Five: Tendency towards socializing with the brothers

Defect: Much tendency towards socializing with peers around him and hanging out with his brothers.

Therapy: To know that his companions shall depart from him eventually, and all socializations are bound to discontinuance as was narrated by the Prophet from Gabriel, peace be upon both: (O Muhammad) Settle as you may want to settle down that you shall die, love whom you want to love that you will part with him, and do as you want that you will be rewarded accordingly.

Abul Qasim Hakim said: The friendship is the enemy except for the one who is purified, the accumulation of the wealth is a sorrow except for the one whose money brought happiness to people, and mingling with people infects you unless you took precautions.

35-    الميل إلى معاشرة الإخوان.
ومن عيوبها: ميلها إلى معاشرة الأقران وصحبة الإخوان.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أن الصاحب له مفارق، والمعاشرة منقطعة كما روي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: قال له جبريل عليه السلام ((عش ما عشت فإنك ميت، وأحبب من شئت فإنك مفارقه، واعمل ما شئت فإنك مجزى به)).
وقال أبو القاسم الحكيم: الصداقة عداوة إلا ما صفيت، وجمع المال حسرة إلا ما واسيت، والمخالطة تخليط إلا ما داويت.

Thirty Six: Being intimate with the Nafs (Self) and seeing her all beautiful

Defects: Feeling happy with the obeisance and see herself (Nafs) performing.

Therapy: To keep teaching your Nafs (Self) obeisance even when she is sincere, because she knows her actions are not void of deficiencies, seeing her with her deficiencies as opposed to veiled by her beautification of her mistakes.

36-    أنسها بطاعتها واستحسانها لها.
ومن عيوبها: أنسها بطاعتها ورؤية استحسانها.
ومداواتها: أن تعلم أفعالها وإن أخلصتها فهي معلومة بأن أفعالها لا تخلو من العلل ويعمل في إسقاط رؤية استحسانه من أفعالها.

Thirty Seven: Nafs's (Self's) cessation of obeisance by following the lusts

Defects: The Nafs (Self) becomes incapacitated, for righteous deeds, due to the full fledge following after the desires and lusts.

Therapy: Defying what she is after and opposing her, pushing to do what she dislikes. Abi Hafs was asked: What attracts the correction of the Nafs (Self)? He said: Opposing her for she is the place for all plagues.

37-    إماتة النفس عن الطاعات بإتباع الشهوات.
ومن عيوبها: إماتتها النفس بإتباع الهوى والشهوات، فإن النفس إذا مكنت من ذلك ماتت عن الطاعات والموافقات.
ومداواتها: منعها من مراداتها وحملها على المكاره ومخالفتها فيما تطلب فإن ذلك الذي يميت عنها شهواتها. قيل لأبي حفص: بما يستجلب صلاح النفس؟ قال: مخالفتها لأنها موضع كل آفة.

Thirty Eight: Sense of security against the Satan

Defect: Sense of security about the devil, devil's justifications and tricks.

Therapy: Correcting the servitude for Allah (only), as specified by Allah, and complaining to Allah asking for the endowment of servitude as was said by Allah: Only the slaves (of Allah) you have no power over [Al-Hajr:42].

38-    الأمن من مكر الشيطان.
ومن عيوبها: أن تأمن من مكر الشيطان وتسويله ومكره.
ومداواتها: تصحيح العبودية بشرائطه والتضرع إلى الله في أن يمن عليه بذلك لأن الله تعالى يقول:  إِنَّ عِبَادِي لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانٌ {الحجر:42}

Thirty Nine: To portray the Nafs (Self) as a righteous without sincerity

Defect: Rendering one's Nafs (Self) as good and righteous without any sincerity in the heart.

Therapy: To drop the outward acts of humility for Allah unless that which is found within his heart and measured accordingly.

39-    الترسم برسم الصلاح من غير مطالبة بالإخلاص فيه.
ومن عيوبها: الترسم برسم الصلاح من غير مطالبة القلب بالإخلاص فيما ترسم به من الصلاح.
ومداواتها: ترك الخشوع الظاهر إلا بقدر ما يرى، من خشوع الباطن في قلبه وسره لأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: ((المتشبع بما لم يعط كلابس ثوب زور)).


Forty: Lack of consideration for Allah's lax treatment of him

Defect: Does not have the proper view of Allah's slow reaction to him.

Therapy: Perpetual humility in Presence of Allah, and to know that this slowness of Divine Reaction is not due to slacking that indeed will be held responsible for everything unless by Allah's Mercy to be spared, indeed the proper view of the situation is for the people of humility as was said by Allah: Indeed within this is admonishment for those who fear Allah [Al-Nazi'at: 26].  

40-    عدم الاعتبار بإمهال الله إياه.
ومن عيوبها: عدم الاعتبار بما يراه من إمهال الله إياه في ذنوبه.
ومداواتها: دوام الخشية، وأن يعلم أن ذلك الإمهال ليس بإهمال فإن الله تعالى مسائله عن ذلك ومجازيه عن ذلك لعلها إلا أن  يرحمه الله، فإن الاعتبار لأهل الخشية، لأن الله تعالى يقول: إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَعِبْرَةً لِّمَن يَخْشَى   {النازعات:26}.
قال القائل:
غرها إمهال خالقها لها      لا تحسبن إمهالها إهمالها.

Forty One: Love of exposing the faults of the brothers and companions

Defect: Exposing his brothers' and friends' faults.

Therapy: To love what he loves for his own Nafs (Self) to love for people's Nafs (Self), as is narrated from the Prophet: He who conceals the shame of his brother Allah will cover his shame.

41- حب إفشاء عيوب الإخوان والأصحاب.
ومن عيوبها: محبتها لإفشاء عيوب إخوانه وأصحابه.
ومداواتها: أن يرجع في ذلك إلى نفسه فيحب للناس ما يحب لنفسه، وما روي عنه صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال: ((من ستر عورة أخيه المسلم ستر الله عورته)).

Forty Two: Absence of caring for his Hāla (Momentary state of the heart) for excess and scantiness

Note: Excess or Al-Ziadat means to perform the extra prayers recommended by the Prophet and scantiness as in the eye of scantiness means to look down to belittle the world and turn away from it.

Defect: Forsaking the Excess i.e. forsaking the extra worships and Dhikr (Remembrance), as was said by Imam Ali: He who does not increase shall decrease with scantiness, meaning if you do not worship extra and make much Dhikr (Remembrance), in deeds and in speech, you shall decrease in all else. 

42- عدم مراقبة حاله في الزيادة والنقص.
ومن عيوبها: ترك الاستزادة في نفسه في أفعاله وأقواله عن الاقتداء بالسلف فإن علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه قال: ((من لم يكن في زيادة فهو في نقصان)).

المحاضرات في اللغة و الأدب  اليوسي  
ورجل له أصل وقديم شرفٍ ثم لم يبنه ولم يجدده، وهو إما أن تخفى عوامله فلم يبن ولم يهدم، مع أنه بالحقيقة من لم يكن في زيادة فهو في نقصان، والمراد أن يرجع إلى غمار الناس فلا يحدد المآثر، ولا يخرج إلى المعايب، فهذا لا فضيلة له إلاّ مجرد النسب والفخر العظاميّ كما مر، وإما أن يهدمه بملابسة ضد ما كان أولاً، فهذا بمنزلة من هدم الدار ثم حفر البقعة أيضاً فأفسدها، فهذا مذموم بما جنى على نفسه وبما جنى على حسبه ونسبه والذروة العليا في هذا الصنف اليهود والنصارى ونحوهم، فقد هدموا أنسابهم وأحسابهم بشر الخصال، وهو الكفر، نسأل الله العافية.

Forty Three: Belittling Muslims and arrogance over them

Defect: Humiliating the Muslims, looking down on them and assuming higher position over them.  

Therapy: Returning to humbleness and maintaining the respect of the Muslims, as was ordered by Allah: Forgive them (Muslims) and seek forgiveness for them and consult with them for their affairs [Imran:159], and he should know that arrogance was what happened to Iblis: I am better than him (Adam) [Sad:76], as the Prophet stared at the Ka'ba saying: What greatness! And what greatness for your sanctity! However the believer has more sanctity than you, since with Allah you have only one sanctification but the believer has three: his blood, his belongings, and suspecting evil suspicions.

43- تحقير المسلمين، والتكبر عليهم.
ومن عيوبها: تحقير المسلمين والترفع والتكبر عليهم.
ومداواتها: الرجوع إلى التواضع واعتماد حرمة المسلمين فإن الله تعالى يقول لنبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِي الأَمْرِ   {آل عمران:159} فيعلم أن الكبر هو الذي أوقع فيه حتي قال: قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ. و النبي   نظر إلى الكعبة فقال: (( ما أعظمك وأعظم حرمتك، والمؤمن أعظم حرمة عند الله منك، إن الله حرم منك واحدة، ومن المؤمن ثلاثاً: دمه، وماله، وأن يظن به ظن السوء)).

Forty Four: Indolence and lack of verve to perform the orders of Shariat (Prophetic ways)

Defect: Laziness in spiritual affairs.

Therapy: To remember this is Allah ordering this or that! That immediately increases the energy.  My grandfather Isma'il Ibn Majid said: Indifference in performing spiritual deeds is due to lack of Ma'refat (Divine Gnosis) for Allah.

Note: You do not like to perform Salat (Daily prayers) because you do not enough knowledge about it. If you do not like to fast it is because you have no gnosis for it.

44- التكاسل وعدم الاهتمام بالأوامر الشرعية.
ومن عيوبها: الكسل والقعود عن الأمر.
ومداواتها: أنه يعلم أنه مأمور من جهة الحق ليحمله فرح ذلك على النشاط، ولذلك سمعت جدي إسماعيل بن مجيد رحمه الله تعالى يقول: التهاون بالأمر من قلة المعرفة بالآمر.

Forty Five: Enrobing with the garment of the righteous without their righteous deeds

Defect: Looking like the pious e.g. wearing beard and white robes, and yet have the deeds of a corrupt person.

Therapy: Forsaking the outward pious décor until such time the inside is purified and adorned first, as was, probably, said by the Prophet: It suffices a man to be considered evil if the people see him as pious and inside he is a sinner.

Abu 'Uthman: The pious décor while the inside is sinning, inherits the insistence on wrongdoing.

45- التزيي بزي الصالحين دون أن يعمل بأعمالهم.
ومن عيوبها: أن تتزين بزي الصالحين فتعمل عمل أهل الفساد.
ومداواتها: ترك زينة الظاهر إلا بعد إصلاح الباطن، فإن تزين بزينة قوم اجتهد في أن يوافقهم في أخلاقهم وأفعالهم كلها أو بعضها لأنه روى في الخبر أنه قال: كفى المرء شراً أن يُري الناس أنه يخشى الله وقلبه فاجر.
وقال أبو عثمان: زينة الظاهر مع فجور يورث الإصرار.

Forty Six: Wasting the time wherein there is no business of him

Defect: Wasting his time away with affairs that should be no concern of him e.g. worldly affair and plunging amongst the inhabitants of this world.

Therapy: To know that his most precious possession is his time, and should spend it on most noble of all activities i.e. Dhikr (Remembrance) of Allah while in full obeisance seeking sincerity for his Nafs (Self), as have been narrated from the Prophet: The best and most beautiful of a man's Islam is to not busy with what is not his business.

And he who forsakes what is not his business is busied with what is his business. And Hassan said: Be aware of your Nafs (Self) if you did not make her busy (with good deeds) she is busy (with bad deeds).

46- تضييع الأوقات فيما لا يعنيه.
ومن عيوبها: تضييع الأوقات بالاشتغال بما لا يعنيه من أمور الدنيا والخوض فيها مع أهلها.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أن وقته أعز الأشياء عليه، فيشغله بأعز الأشياء وهو ذكر الله والمداومة على طاعته، ومطالبته الإخلاص من نفسه، فإنه روي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال: (( من حسن إسلام المرء تركه مالا يعنيه)). ومن ترك ما لا يعنيه اشتغل بما يعنيه، وقال الحسن: عليك بنفسك إن لم تشغلها أشغلتك.

Forty Seven: The Anger

Defect: Anger.

Therapy: Pushing the Nafs (Self) to have assent for the fate and destiny that indeed anger is a smoldering ember from Satan. A man came to the Prophet and said: Advise me! Prophet told him: Do not get angry!

That for sure the anger pushes the man towards the limits of destruction, if this anger is not combined with forcible prevention from Allah.

47- الغضب.
ومن عيوبها: حمل النفس على الرضا بالقضاء فإن الغضب جمرة من الشيطان، ولأن رجلاً جاء إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال: أوصِني، فقال: ((لا تغضب)) ولأن الغضب يخرِجُ العبد إلى حد الهلاك إذا لم يصحبه من الله تعالى زجر ومنع.

Forty Eight: The Lying

Defect: Lying.

Therapy: Forsaking the satisfaction of the people yearning for their approval, that what forces a man to tell lies is seeking to please people or seeking to gain from people fame and dignity, as narrated from the Prophet: The Truth guides towards righteousness, the lying guides towards the sins, and the sins guide towards the Fire!

48- الكذب.
ومن عيوبها: الكذب.
ومداواتها: ترك الاشتغال برضا الخلق وسخطهم، فإن الذي يحمل صاحب الكذب على الكذب طلب رضا الناس أو التزين لهم وطلب الجاه عندهم، فإنه روي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال: (( الصدق يهدي إلى البر، والكذب يهدي إلى الفجور، والفجور يهدي إلى النار)).

Forty Nine: Being Greedy and Stingy

Defect: The greed and miserliness are the direct results of love for this life.

Therapy: To know that this world is not much and it is evanescing, its lawful within it brings accountability and its forbidden brings torment. As has been narrated from the Prophet: The love of this life is the cause of all wrongdoings! For sure Allah has informed us about this world that it is a small deceptive pleasures so not to be greedy or stingy about it and not to exert much effort for it.

And he does not grab much of it except what he needs to live this life, as the Prophet told the Bilal: Don’t be afraid Allah is generous! (Allah's blessings never finishes don’t be worry)

49- الشح والبخل.
ومن عيوبها: الشح والبخل وهما نتائج حب الدنيا.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أن الدنيا قليلة وأنها فانية، وأن حلالها حساب وحرامها عذاب، كما روي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال: ((حُبُ الدنيا رأس كل خطيئة)) وأن الله تعالى أخبر عنها أنها متاع الغرور فلا يبخل بها ولا يشح ويجتهد في بذلها، و لا يمسك منها إلا مقدار ما يدافع به وقته فإنه صلى الله عليه وسلم قال لبلال: ((ولا تَخشَ من ذي العرش إقلالاً)).

Fifty: Prolonged false hopes

Defect: Nafs's (Self's) hopes are all far away from realization.

Therapy: Feel the nearness of death and to know that some past sages said: Be careful! Don’t feel safe in presence of Allah that all circumstance can/will change. (Don’t think because Allah gave you somethings now that they last forever, they can be taken away by Allah at any time and vice-a-versa if you do not have things you love and need, do not think Allah might not give them to you the next moment.)

50- طول الأمل.
ومن عيوبها: بعد أملها.
ومداواتها: تقريب الأجل ويعلم أن بعض السلف قال: أحسب الله لا يُؤمن على حال [فاحذر] الأحوال كلها.

Fifty One: Being deceived by the people's praise

Defect: Deceived by the illusions of false praises.

Therapy: No words from the people can deceive him since he knows how is his Nafs (Self), and the reality of his Nafs (Self) shall affect only his person and not others, and their praise for him is baseless, and their praises would not be his salvation.

51- الاغترار بمدح الناس.
ومن عيوبها: الاغترار بالمدائح الباطلة.
ومداواتها: أن لا يغره كلام الناس مع ما يعرفه بنفسه، فإن حقيقة الأمر يخلص إليه دونهم وأن ثناءهم عليه دون ما يعرفه الله منه ويعرفه هو من نفسه لا ينجيه فلِمَ [يغتر] به.

Fifty Two: Avidity

Defect: Excessive avidity, greed and covetousness

Therapy: To know that his avid desire and greed will not increase his due portion of provision set aside by Allah as has been narrated from the Prophet: Allah commanded an angel: Write his provision, death, deeds, fortune or misery. And Allah said: [50:29] "The Word changes not before Me, and I do not the least injustice to My Servants."

52- الحرص.
ومن عيوبها: الحرص.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أنه لا يستجلب بحرصه زيادة ما قدر الله من رزقه كما روى ابن مسعود عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أن الله تعالى يقول للملك: ((اكتب رزقه وأجله وعمله، وشقي أم سعيد))، والله تعالى يقول:  مَا يُبَدَّلُ الْقَوْلُ لَدَيَّ وَمَا أَنَا بِظَلَّامٍ لِّلْعَبِيدِ  {ق:29}.

Fifty Three: The Envy

Defect: Envy for what other people have.

Therapy: To know that envy is the enemy of Allah's bounties and indeed the Prophet ordered: Do not have envy for each other. And envy is directed resulted from lack of compassion for Muslims.

53- الحسد.
ومن عيوبها: الحسد.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم الحسد عدو نعمة الله، وأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: ((لا تحاسدوا)) ونتيجة الحسد من قلة الشفقة على المسلمين.

Fifty Four: Insisting upon sins while longing for Divine Mercy

Defect: Insisting upon sinning and yet filled with hope for Divine forgiveness.

Therapy: To know that Allah has made the Divine Forgiveness mandatory for those who do not insist upon sinning: And those who, having done something to be ashamed of, or wronged their own souls, earnestly bring Allah to mind, and ask for forgiveness for their sins, and who can forgive sins except Allah and are never obstinate in persisting knowingly in (the wrong) they have done [3:135]. Abu Dha'Dha' said: Indifference or scorning the Divine Decree for destiny is the direct cause of insistence upon sinning. And to know that Allah has made the Divine Mercy mandatory for the good-doers and the Divine Forgiveness for the repenters, as has been said by Allah: Ask forgiveness of your Lord, and turn to Hu (in repentance) [Hud:52], But, without doubt, I am (also) Hu that forgives again and again, to those who repent, believe, and do right, who, in fine, are ready to receive true guidance [Taha:82]

54- الإصرار على الذنب مع تمني الرحمة.
ومن عيوبها: الإصرار على الذنب مع تمني الرحمة ورجاء المغفرة.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أن الله أوجب مغفرته لمن لا يصر على الذنب حيث قال: وَلَمْ يُصِرُّواْ عَلَى مَا فَعَلُواْ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ  {آل عمران:135} وقال أبو الضعض: الإصرار على الذنب من التهاون بقدر الله، ويعلم أن الله تعالى أوجب الرحمة للمحسنين، وأوجب المغفرة للتائبين حيث قال:  اسْتَغْفِرُواْ رَبَّكُمْ ثُمَّ تُوبُواْ إِلَيْهِ  {هود:52}  وَإِنِّي لَغَفَّارٌ لِّمَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا ثُمَّ اهْتَدَى  {طه:82}.

Fifty Five: Lack of enthusiastic and willing response for obeisance of Allah

Defect: Lacks enthusiasm for obeisance.

Therapy: Hunger, thirst and displaced away from one's people and pushing the Nafs (Self) to do what she dislikes. Someone asked Ba Yazid Bastami: What was the hardest thing you met on the Path of Allah? Bastami answered: Impossible to describe. So again asked: What was the easiest your Nafs (Self) met on the Path of Allah? Bastami answered: I invited her (Nafs) towards some obeisance for Allah and she did not responded positively so I denied her for one entire year.

55- عدم الاستجابة إلى طاعة الله طوعاً.
ومن عيوبها: لا تجيب إلى طاعة الله طوعاً.
ومداواتها: بالجوع والعطش، والتقطع بالأسفار، والحمل على المكاره، ولذلك سمعت منصور بن عبد الله يقول: سمعت عمي البسطامي يقول: سمعت أبي يقول: قال رجل لأبي يزيد البسطامي: ما أشد ما لقيت في سبيل الله؟ فقال: لا يمكن وصفه، فقال: ما أهون ما لقيت من نفسك في سبيل الله؟ فقال: أما هذا فنعمن دعوتها إلى شيء من الطاعات فلم تجبني طوعاً فمنعتها سنة كاملة.

Fifty Six: Greed for accumulation and denying others

Defect: Collects all things and gives nothing away

Therapy: He should be aware that he does not know how long he shall live, or the nearness of his death to collect the bare minimum need for sustaining life, as was said by the Prophet:  Which of you like his inheritor's money more than his own money? They replied: There is no one amongst us that except he loves his money more than the money of his inheritor! Then the Prophet replied: What money you accumulated is the money for your inheritor! (i.e. don’t think about accumulating just give it away now, since what you accumulated is only inherited!)

56- حرصها على الجمع والمنع.
ومن عيوبها: حرصها على الجمع والمنع.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم انبهام عمره، وقرب أجله فيجمع على قدر نفسه ويمنع بقدر حياته، فمن لا يأمن على حصول التباعة على نفسه، جهل، مع ما روي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال: ((أيكم مالُ وارثه أحبُ إليه من ماله؟ فقالوا: ليس منَا أحدٌ إلا وماله أحب إليه من مال وارثه، فقال: مالك ما قدمت ومال وارثك ما أخرت)).


Fifty Seven: Accompanying those oppose Allah's orders

Defects: Keeping the company of those opposing Allah.

Therapy: Returning towards the companionship of those who are agreeable with Allah's orders and accepted by Allah as the Prophet said: He who behaves-like/looks-similar-to a nation is one of them. Past sages said: The companionship of the evil people causes the bad suspicion about the innocent good folks. Some other sages said: The hearts that are distanced from Allah are distanced from those unwaveringly stand for Allah's rights and truth as well.

57- صحبة المخالفين.
ومن عيوبها: صحبتها مع المخالفين والمعارضين عن الحق.
ومداواتها: الرجوع إلى صحبة الموافقين والمقبولين عند الله تعالى فإن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: ((من تشبه بقوم فهو منهم))، وقال بعض السلف: صحبة الأشرار تورث سوء الظن بالأخيار، وقال بعضهم: القلوب إذا بعدت عن الله مقتت القائمين بحق الله.

Fifty Eight: The Negligence

Defect: Carelessly negligent.

Therapy: To know that Allah is not negligent about him: And your Lord is not unmindful of what you do [11:123]. Allah is the auditor for what enters the minds and intentions, and he who realizes that safeguards and observes his moments carefully and takes good care of his Hāla (Momentary State of heart) and as such remedies his defect of negligence.

58- الغفلة.
ومن عيوبها: الغفلة.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أنه ليس بمغفول عنه وان الله تعالى يقول: وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ  {هود:123}، ويعلم أنه محاسب على الخطرة والهمة، ومن تحقق هذا فراقب أوقاته وراعى أحواله فيزول عنه بذلك عيب الغفلة.

Fifty Nine: Choosing Idleness and yet dress it up as reliance upon Allah, as such facing people

Defect: Forsaking work and giving the false-impression that he is relying upon Allah, he is anticipating if someone gives him a break and enraged if the break was declined.

Therapy: Go to work! As the Prophet recommended: The best to eat is what the man earned!

On the surface of things he relies on people for trade and introspects only relies upon Allah.

59- اختيار البطالة بإظهار التوكل تلبيساً على الناس.
ومن عيوبها: ترك الكسب والقعود عنه إظهارً للخلق أنه قعد متوكلاً ثم [يتشرف] للإرفاق و يتسخط إذا لم يأته الإرفاق.
ومداواتها: أن [يلتزم] الكسب – كما روي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال: ((أطيَبُ ما أَكَلَ الرجل من كسبه)) ظاهراً- و[يتوكل] باطناً ليكون مكتسباً مع الخلق في الظاهر ومتوكلاً على الله في الباطن.

Sixty: Escaping from 'Ilm (Knowledge) towards false-claims and false-states

Defect: He runs away from the spiritual knowledge and practices and instead claims strange claims of odd incidents and superstitious concepts visions and states.

Therapy: Necessitating the acquisition and application of 'Ilm (Knowledge) for the Nafs (Self): If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and Hu's Messenger [women:59] and Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger [table 92] And the Prophet has commended: The acquisition of knowledge is mandatory for all Muslims.  

60- الفرار من إتباع العلم إلى الدعاوي والأحوال.
ومن عيوبها: الفرار بما يوجبه عليه ظاهر العلم إلى الدعاوي والأحوال.
ومداواتها: ملازمتها العلم فإن الله تعالى يقول: فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ  {النساء:59} وقال:   وَأَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ {المائدة:92}. وقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: ((طلبُ العلمِ فريضةٌ على كل مسلم)).

Sixty One: Magnifies his offerings

Defect: He magnifies what he offers to people and causes problems for the taker.

Therapy: To know that the provision reaches to the people, without any middle-agent, and all comes from Allah's bounty and he is only the middleman and he is not acting fair by magnifying what he is delivering, since what they are getting is their right (from Allah).  

61- استعظام ما تعطي والافتتان به.
ومن عيوبها: استعظام ما تعطي وما تبذل [والافتتان] به على من يأخذ.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أنه يوصل إليهم أرزاقهم وأن الرزاق والمعطي في الحقيقة هو الله، وأنه واسطة، ولا يتعاظم في إيصال حق إلى مستحق.

Sixty Two: Appearing as poor while having enough

Defect: While is not poor acting like a poor person.

Therapy: Giving the appearance of sufficiency in face of scantiness. My grandfather said: There were wealthy people who entered Sufism, became poor and yet gave the appearance of wealth, and now (in my time) there were those who were poor and entered the Sufism and gained wealth and gave the appearance of poverty.   

62- إظهار الفاقة مع الكفاية.
ومن عيوبها: إظهار الفقر مع الكفاية.
ومداواتها: إظهار الكفاية مع القلة، سمعت جدي رحمه الله تعالى يقول: كان الناس يدخلون في التصوف أغنياء ويفتقرون ويظهرون الغنى، في هذا الوقت يدخلون في التصوف فقراء ويستغنون ثم يظهرون للناس الفقر.

Sixty Three: Seeing himself better than this brothers and acquaintances

Defect: Seeing one's Self as others are indebted to him.

Therapy: To know his own Nafs (Self) i.e. to know his own follies and regard his acquaintance under the best light by belittling his own Nafs (Self), and to see exclusively the virtues and goodness of his brothers and this is not possible unless he first looks down on his own Nafs (Self) and regards other with high esteem, as Al-Sajazi said: For you there are virtues for as long as you do not glance at your own virtues, and once you glanced at your own virtues, for you there are no virtues.

63- رؤية فضله على إخوانه وأقرانه.
ومن عيوبها: رؤية فضله على إخوانه وأقرانه.
ومداواتها: العلم بنفسه ولا أعلم به منه وحسن الظن بأقرانه ليحمله ذلك على احتقار نفسه، ورؤية فضل إخوانه وأقرانه ولا يصح له ذلك إلا بعد أن ينظر إلى الخلق [أجمع] بعين الزيادة وينظر إلى نفسه بعين النقصان، كذلك سمعت جدي يقول: سمعت أبا عبد الله السجزي يقول: لك فضل ما لم تر فضلك، فإذا رأيت فضلك فلا فضل لك.


Sixty Four: Pushing the Nafs (Self) exclusively for pleasures and comforts

Defect: Seeking just comfort and pleasure of the Nafs (Self).

Therapy: Allah has expressed anger for those who seek only the pleasure and comfort: Exult not, for Allah loves not those who exult (in riches) [28:76]. And the character of the Prophet can be best described as sorrowful as was said by the Prophet: Indeed Allah loves every sorrowful heart. Malik Bin Dinar said: The heart that has no sorrow within is that of a ruined house that has no residents within.    

64- حمل النفس ما يستجلب لها الفرح.
ومن عيوبها: حمل النفس ما يستجلب لها الفرح.
ومداواتها: أن الله يبغض الفرحين لقوله تعالى:  إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَرِحِينَ  {القصص:76} وفي صفة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه كان دائم الأحزان متواصل الفكر وقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: ((إن الله يحب كل قلب حزين)) وقال مالك بن دينار: إن القلب إذا لم يكن فيه حزن خرب كما أن البيت إذا لم يسكن خرب.

Sixty Five: The Nafs's (Self's) ignorance confused with the Creator's Blessings

Defect: Nafs (Self) is in the state of Shukr (Gratitude) and yet she falsely assumes she is in the state of patience.

Therapy: To view, unconditionally, the blessings of Allah in any and all circumstances. Aba Uthman said: All people falsely assume that they are in the Maqam (Stationary State of the Heart) of patience and yet with Allah they are in the Maqam of Shukr (Gratitude).

65- جهلها بنعم باريها.
ومن عيوبها: أن يكون في محل الشكر وهو يظن أنه في مقام الصبر.
ومداواتها: رؤية نعم الله في جميع الأحوال، سمعت سعيد بن عبد الله يقول: سمعت عمي يقول: سمعت أبا عثمان يقول: الخلق كلهم مع الله تعالى في مقام الشكر ويظنون أنهم معه في مقام الصبر.

Sixty Six: Seeking lawfulness within the ambiguities

Defect: The Nafs (Self) knows well what is Halal (Lawful) under the Divine Law, but is mesmerized by the ambiguous situations where she is not sure if something is lawful or not, and she desires those so very much.

Therapy: To avoid any and all ambiguities since eventually they only guide towards Haram (Unlawful) as was said by the Prophet: Halal (The Lawful) is made clear and the Haram (The Unlawful) is also made clear and there are ambiguities in between, and he who avoids the ambiguities has properly submitted in his Din (Way, Religion), and he who embarked upon the ambiguities eventually embarked upon Haram (The Unlawful), like that of a shepherd that almost took his flock to a pasture that belongs to another person, O Yes! There are pastures for every king, and Allah's pasture is what Hu has forbidden.

66-تناول الرخص بالشبهات.
ومن عيوبها: تناول [ الرخص] بالشبهات.
ومداواتها: اجتناب الشبهات وأنها تؤدي إلى فعل الحرام، ألا ترى أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: ((الحلال بين والحرام بين وبينهما مشتبهات، فمن اجتنبهن فهو أسلم لِدينهِ وعِرضهِ، ومن واقعهن وقع في الحرام، كالراعي حول الحمى يوشك أن يخالط الحما، ألا وإنَ لكل ملكٍ حما، وإن حِما الله محارمه)).

Sixty Seven: Expanding the Nafs's (Self's) habitual slip-ups

Defect: To make the Nafs (Self) getting used to habitual mistakes as the Murids (Seekers) are warned by Aba Uthman: Majority of the Murids (Seekers) expand the habitual mistakes of the Nafs (Self) by little mistakes/laps here and there, and leaving treatment of this defect will lead the Nafs (Self) getting used to making mistakes and for that reason and for sure she shall fall down in spiritual gradations.  

67- الإفضاء عليها في العثرات.
ومن عيوبها: الإفضاء على نفسه في عثرة تقع به أو زلة وأمثالها. كذلك سمعت عبد الله بن محمد الرازي يقول: سمعت أبا عثمان يقول: عامة المريدين من إفضائهم مع [عثرة] تقع لهم، أو هفوة، وترك مداواتها في الوقت بدواية حتى تعتاد النفس ذلك فتسقط من درجة [الإدارة].

Sixty Eight: Nafs (Self) deceiving herself by Karāmāt (Benevolences bestowed upon)

Defect: Nafs (Self) deceives herself, thinking that she is the owner the source of Karāmāt (Benevolences bestowed upon). (Dara: Best I can describe Karāmāt are blessings bestowed upon a Sufi, originating from Allah only, and due to nothing done by the Sufi, and often the blessing is entrusted to the Sufi temporarily to deliver to the people in need. Like a sleeper when a king passed by and left some fortune in his luggage, and when he arrived to his destination opened the luggage and surprised distributed the fortune to those in need. He was not the intended recipient he was the traveler who transported the blessings.)

Therapy: To know that most of good things in life are deceptions that guide, gradually, towards a trap, as said by Allah: Those who reject Our signs, We shall gradually visit with punishment, in ways they perceive not [7:182]. And some of the past sages said: The most subtle trick that deceives the Aulia (Friends of Allah) is that of the Karāmāt.

68- الاغترار بالكرامات.
ومن عيوبها: الاغترار بالكرامات.
ومداواتها: أن يعلم أن أكثرها اغترارات واستدراج، والله تعالى يقول: وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِآيَاتِنَا سَنَسْتَدْرِجُهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ  {الأعراف:182} وقد قال بعض السلف: ألطف ما يخادع به الأولياء الكرامات والمعونات.

Sixty Nine: Love to socialize with the rich

Defect: Nafs (Self) loves to socialize with the rich and is inclined towards them and is benevolent and generous to them.

Therapy: To make the Nafs (Self) to socialize with the poor, and to know that nothing comes to him from them, poor or rich, since his provision is portioned and sent only by Allah to her, and this way it may cut her greed/love from the rich, and to know that Allah blamed the Prophet to socialize with the rich: As to one who regards Himself as self-sufficient, To him dost thou attend, Though it is no blame to thee if he grow not (in spiritual understanding), But as to him who came to thee striving earnestly, And with fear (in his heart), Of him wast thou unmindful [Abas:10-5].

The Prophet addressing the poor said: To live the life is to live like you and to die is to die like you. I have been ordered to make my Nafs (Self) patient with you. And again the Prophet has prayed: Allah let me live poor, and take me poor and resurrect me amongst the poor. And the Prophet ordered the Imam Ali: You have to love the poor and be near to them.

69- حب مجالسة الأغنياء.
ومن عيوبها: محبة مجالسة الأغنياء وميله إليهم وإقباله عليهم [وإكرامه] لهم.
ومداواتها: مجالسة الفقراء والعلم بأنه لا يصل إليه مما في أيديهم إلا مقدار ما قدره الله له فيقطع الطمع منهم فيسقط ذلك محبتهم والميل إليهم، ويعلم أن الله عاتب نبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم في مجالسة [الأغنياء] فقال: أَمَّا مَنِ اسْتَغْنَى 5 فَأَنتَ لَهُ تَصَدَّى 6وَمَا عَلَيْكَ أَلَّا يَزَّكَّى 7 وَأَمَّا مَن جَاءكَ يَسْعَى 8 وَهُوَ يَخْشَى 9فَأَنتَ عَنْهُ تَلَهَّى {عبس:5-10].



© 2006-2002,  Dara O. Shayda, Ahmad Bukhari