Sabbaha (Sanctified) vs. Usabbihu ( is Sanctifying)
Usage of the word 'sanctify' in verb-form in the Qur’an

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See Also:  

Ma'refa (Gnosis) 
   Template Fa’ala 
   The Two Hydrophobic Seas 
   Two Prehensions 
       Li (Specialization)   
       Ma (What)   
   Three Harf (Divine Alphabets)  
       Tashdid of Ba: Formation of the Individual 
Sabbaha (Sanctified): The past tense  

Non-cognitive Tasbih Example: Gene Expression  
Moses’ Angelic Tasbih  

It is customary to use the phrase ‘Glory to Allah’ with the associated meaning of sanctification, adoration and praise for God. However, upon closer study of the linguistics of the word Sabaha or sanctify in the Arabic of the Qur’an, a far more elaborate set of meanings is revealed. In earlier attempts "Sabaha" (Sanctify) in Masdar (Verbal Noun) form was researched:

In the following treatise the verb format of the word "Sabaha" is explored, in the past tense form: "Sabbaha" and in the present tense form: "Usabbihu".


Occurrences of the verb-form of Sabaha in the Qur’an are under strict linguistic specifications:

1.    Sabbaha, past tense singular for everything: [57:1], [59:1] and [61:1] 

سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

2.    Usabbihu, present tense singular for everything: [59:24], [62:1], [64:1], [24:41], [17:44], [24:36], [59:24] and [13:13]

هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

يُسَبِّحُ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ الْمَلِكِ الْقُدُّوسِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ

يُسَبِّحُ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالطَّيْرُ صَافَّاتٍ كُلٌّ قَدْ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَهُ وَتَسْبِيحَهُ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَفْعَلُونَ

تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمَوَاتُ السَّبْعُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهِنَّ وَإِنْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ إِلَّا يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَلَكِنْ لَا تَفْقَهُونَ تَسْبِيحَهُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حَلِيمًا غَفُورًا

فِي بُيُوتٍ أَذِنَ اللَّهُ أَنْ تُرْفَعَ وَيُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ فِيهَا بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالْآَصَالِ

وَيُسَبِّحُ الرَّعْدُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ مِنْ خِيفَتِهِ وَيُرْسِلُ الصَّوَاعِقَ فَيُصِيبُ بِهَا مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَهُمْ يُجَادِلُونَ فِي اللَّهِ وَهُوَ شَدِيدُ الْمِحَالِ


3.    Nusabbihu-Ka, present plural ‘we shall/are sanctify(ing) You’ only for Moses and his brother as a team [20:33]

كَيْ نُسَبِّحَكَ كَثِيرًا

4.    Nusabbihu, present first person plural ‘we shall/are sanctify(ing)’ followed by Bi-Hamdi-Ka (By means of Your Praise) for angels [2:30]

يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

5.    Usabbihuna-(Hu), present 3rd person plural ‘They shall/are sanctify(ing)’ for angels and those close to Allah [7:206], [21:20], [39:75], [40:7], [41:38] and [42:5] 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَيُسَبِّحُونَهُ وَلَهُ يَسْجُدُونَ
يُسَبِّحُونَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لَا يَفْتُرُونَ
وَتَرَى الْمَلَائِكَةَ حَافِّينَ مِنْ حَوْلِ الْعَرْشِ يُسَبِّحُونَ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّهِمْ وَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْحَقِّ وَقِيلَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
الَّذِينَ يَحْمِلُونَ الْعَرْشَ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُ يُسَبِّحُونَ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّهِمْ وَيُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ وَيَسْتَغْفِرُونَ لِلَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا رَبَّنَا وَسِعْتَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ رَحْمَةً وَعِلْمًا فَاغْفِرْ لِلَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَاتَّبَعُوا سَبِيلَكَ وَقِهِمْ عَذَابَ الْجَحِيمِ
فَإِنِ اسْتَكْبَرُوا فَالَّذِينَ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ يُسَبِّحُونَ لَهُ بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَهُمْ لَا يَسْأَمُونَ
تَكَادُ السَّمَوَاتُ يَتَفَطَّرْنَ مِنْ فَوْقِهِنَّ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ يُسَبِّحُونَ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّهِمْ وَيَسْتَغْفِرُونَ لِمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَلَا إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ

6.    Tusabbihu, present singular female [17:44]

تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمَوَاتُ السَّبْعُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهِنَّ وَإِنْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ إِلَّا يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَلَكِنْ لَا تَفْقَهُونَ تَسْبِيحَهُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حَلِيمًا غَفُورًا

Ma'refa (Gnosis)   

Mufradat Isfahani
“Sabaha is the rapid motion within the water or air. Tasbih’s origin is quick motion within the Ibada (Servitude) for Allah. (Rushing to worship Allah)”

السبح المرُّ السريعُ في الماءِ أو في الهوا
التسبيح اصله  المرُّ السريعُ في عبادة الله تعالى

Sabaha is fast motion within aquatic or aerial space. Ibada (Servitude) for Allah  has also spatiotemporal attributes. Therefore Ibada is a habitat within which the slave of Allah offers his servitude as rapid motions, like unto aquatic or aerial motions. The rapid swimming of the fish within the sea or the gliding of the birds in the sky are examples of their Tasbih for Allah.

Cognitive or non-cognitive responses to Allah are extremely rapid, that is, the slaves cannot pause, muse and then move sluggishly, intermittently to show servitude towards Allah. Their motion towards Allah is through a series of rapid ceaseless motions as if cruising upon water or gliding within the sky.

Look at the planet we live on: It rotates around itself with quite high speed, rotates around the sun fast, and the entire solar system/galaxy is moving at mind-boggling speed within space! Nevertheless. I am sitting down now typing and do not feel any of those incredible speeds i.e. we are all in super fast speeds rushing towards Allah, yet very few of us are aware of this incredible motion.

Al-Tasbih is Taqdis (Sanctification) and Tanszih (Purification); it also means the swimming of the Sirr (The Divine Observatory) within the Seas of ‘Ijlal (Veils that conceal Allah).

Sirr is the most subtle spiritual faculty within human beings and the place for Shuhud (Observations), this Rahi (Author) has coined the term ‘Divine Observatory’ to refer to it, very much like a telescope! Our Sirr swims fast within the sea of all the veils that cloak Allah’s Beauty and Might while we helplessly attempt to see something within this sea until, fully disappointed, we acknowledge that we cannot see anything and that is the rank of Tasbih.

 تفسير لطائف الإشارات / القشيري (ت 465 هـ)
التسبيحُ التقديسُ والتنزيه، ويكون بمعنى سباحة الأسرار في بحار الإجلال،

These motions, for the most part, are involuntary whether they are cognitive in nature or not. The non-cognitive Tasbih is, partly, generated by the deeply buried water molecules within the protein crevices and their putative proton translocation that in nature is Quantal i.e. the mass of the water protons do not move but their charges/wave-functions do. For more detail please see:

Template Fa’ala

Shadha Al-‘Urf Fi Fan Al-Sarf

The template Fa’ala is used with 8 different meanings, two of which are common to other verb templates and six are exclusive to this template:

1.    Intensity: Jawwala or Tawwafa means roamed and circumambulated many many times. 
2.    Something morphing to look like something else: Qawwasa means something was bent into a bow or Hajjara Al-Tin meaning the mud  turned into stone.
3.    Attributing something to the meaning of a verb: Fassaqtu Zaid means I attributed corruption to Zaid or Kaffartuhu I attribute disbelief to him
4.    Focus and attention towards something: Sharraqtu or Gharabbtu I turned my attention to east or west.
5.    Compression: Hallala to mean La Ilaha Ilal-lahi (No deity other than Allah), Sabbaha to mean Subhanal-Lahi (Sanctification for Allah) or Labbaya to mean Labbaika (read to serve you) and Ammana to mean Amen.
6.    Accepting something: Shaffa’tu Zaid means I accepted the intercession of the Zaid.

Sometimes the template appears but the final derivative has a totally different meaning e.g. Ajjazat Al-Mara’t to mean the woman reached old age.  (Reaching old age has nothing to do with the original verb Ajaza).

شذا العرف في فن الصرف  أحمد الحملاوي 
3- فعل
يكثر استعمالها في ثمانية معان، تشارك أفعل في اثنين منها، وهما التعدية، كقومت زيدا وقعدته، والإزالة كجربت البعير وقشرت الفاكهة، أي: أزلت جربه، وأزلت قشره.
وتنفرد بستة.
أولها: التكثير في الفعل، كجول، وطوف: أكثر الجولان، والطوفان، أو في المفعول، كغلقت الأبواب، أو في الفاعل، كموتت الإبل وبركت.
وثانيها: صيرورة شيء شبه شيء، كقوس وحجر الطين، أي: صار شبه القوس في الانحناء، والحجر في الجمود.
وثالثها: نسبة الشيء إلى أصل الفعل، كفسقت زيدا، أو كفرته: نسبته إلى الفسق، أوالكفر.
ورابعها: التوجه إلى الشيء، كشرقت، أوغربت: توجهت إلى الشرق، أو الغرب.
وخامسها: اختصار حكاية الشيء، كهلل وسبح ولبى وأمن: إذا قال: لا إله إلا الله، وسبحان الله، ولبيك، وآمين.
وسادسها. قبول الشيء، كشفعت زيدا: قبلت شفاعته.
وربما ورد بمعنى أصله، أو بمعنى تفعل، كولى وتولى وفكر وتفكر. وربما أغنى عن أصله لعدم وروده، كعيره إذا عابه، وعجزت المرأة: بلغت السن العالية.

In the case of Sabbaha in the context of Qur’anic verses, meanings #1, #5 and possibly #4 are applicable.

#1: If the verse had said Sabaha Lil-Lahi (with one b in Sabah) it would have meant: only he praised Allah only once, while Sabbaha Lil-Lahi (with two bs in sabbaha) means he praised Allah many many times in excess. The intensity is indicated by the Tashdid on the Ba (‘b’ sound).

#5: Sabbaha is a compressed form of an abstraction that points to an infinite set of beings and processes which are involved in a single proper praise of Allah! Praising Allah even once is an endless process which requires infinite sums of energies, planning and intelligence. However Allah has endowed the Wujud (Being) with the ability to praise Hu (IT, Him) by using compressed abstractions such as Sabbaha.

#4: (Possibly) The sole focus of every Wujud (Being) is to praise Allah cognitively or non-cognitively, this focus is rendered via the use of the above template. You might also say that the only thing creation ever did is to praise Allah and nothing else.

The Two Hydrophobic Seas

55:19. Hu/IT has let free the two seas, meeting together
 مَرَجَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ يَلْتَقِيَانِ

55:20. Between them (two) is a Barrier which they do not transgress
بَيْنَهُمَا بَرْزَخٌ لَّا يَبْغِيَانِ

The multiverse has been partitioned in two and is in a continuous state of active partitioning like two hydrophobic seas simultaneously pushing against one another and repelling one another—There is no immixing. The spiritual realm and the corporeal realm are hydrophobically kept asunder. 

Sabbaha (Sanctification in the deep past) pushes towards the Qidam (Realm of all actualities) while the Usabbihu (Sanctification in the present tense) pushes towards this temporal transient universe.

Vast quantities of varied energies are required for this partition, the Tashdid (Repeat letter) of Illa (Other than) is the source of all such necessary powers. The Tashdid of the Ba (‘b’ sound) of both Sabbaha and Usabbihu are the Harf (Divine Alphabets) within which the energies are stored, for each creature that is a part of the pushing apart of the two seas.

Had these energies not existed, no creature could sanctify Allah! It is for that reason that the Prophet taught us to say: "Subhanal-lāhi Wa Bi-Hamdihi" (Sanctification for Allah while being thankful) in which  the Waw-Haliaya (meaning while) indicates that only within the manifolds of Hamd (Praise and gratitude) does the slave realize that he is given the powers to sanctify Allah. Indeed the bestowal and allocation of these energies within the Harf (Divine Alphabets) is one of the greatest endowments from Allah, for they allow every creature to be able to sanctify Allah, in the present moment and in their primordial deep infinite past within the Qidam (The Realm of all Actualities).

The Murid (The seeker of the Divine Being) must traverse both seas and the Barzakh (Barrier) in order to advance towards Allah. Without this Voyage of Tahlil (Statement of Divine Oneness) there is no way to advance towards Allah. As indicated above the energies for the inter-universe travels are provided within the acts and the words of the sanctification and all creatures inescapably ride along these energies towards Allah.

The divide between the two seas caused by Sabbaha and Usabbihu is understood to be for the sanctification of Allah i.e. Allah is far removed and above all else that is not Hu and all else that is not Allah is pushed away from the holiness and purity of the Divine Presence.

‘Pushing away’ means that all creatures maintain and continue their non-deity status and adhere strictly to the laws of nature with the necessary limitations needed for these laws to be enforced .

Two Prehensions 

Our existence is a false Wujud(Being) or in techno language it is a simulation! We really do not exist! That Divine Beloved is the only One who exists and He exists in an absolute mode. He  has no need for any other being to exist upon.

As for any other simulation, there is a need for complex machinery to mimic the actual thing. Our simulation is comprised of two Prehensions:

1.    P+: A positive prehension that is moving towards the Qidam (The Space of all actualities), prehends Allah’s absolute and unique Wujud (Being). During the movement towards the Qidam, our simulation goes through phases e.g. the Fana (Evanescence) phase where our simulation ends gradually! This voyage away from all other than Allah, including the ‘I’, is rendered by the Harf (Divine Alphabet) Sabbaha and the energy for the voyage is stored within the Tashdid of the Harf Ba (‘b’ sound).
2.    P-: A negative prehension that is moving towards this temporal transient universe, negatively prehends the Ilah (Deity) i.e. La Ilaha (No Deity). This negative prehension is rendered via the Harf (Divine Alphabet) Usabbihu meaning no deity whatsoever is worshiped or served.  Again the Tashdid of the Harf Ba (‘b’ sound) fuels the said voyage towards this transient temporal realm.

The entanglement of P+ and P- forms the vector that has one endpoint here i.e. our false simulated Wujud (Being) stretching towards Allah as the only deity of the heavens and earth.

This entanglement can be imagined as a braid that requires much energy to twist and hold the two strands above described together. Only upon the expenditure of such vast energies and braiding entanglement of the two Prehensions is our simulation possible. 

 Ma (What) 
There are two asymmetrical views along the braided vector of the P+ and P- Prehensions. Looking from ‘there to here’ or Insan Kamil we see only ONE: Everything is for Allah/Hu or Lil-Lahi or Lahu.  On the other hand, looking backwards from ‘here to there’ we see much! We see Kathra (Multitude) which in the Qur’an is referred to as Ma (What/All that) is within the heavens and the earth.

Q: What is the false Wujud (Being) or the simulation?
A: Ibn Arabi: ‘Everything in the heavens and in the earth Sabbaha (Sanctified) Lil-Lahi ((for) Allah)’ means Allah exposed everything that exists to Hus (ITs, His) purification from any and all potentialities (Mumkin, Imkan) and made them accept their evanescent being—due to the absolute Wujud (Being) of Allah.

تفسير تفسير القرآن / ابن عربي (ت 638 هـ)
{ سبح لله ما في السموات والأرض } أظهر كل موجود تنزيهه عن الإمكان وقبول الفناء بوجوده الإضافي وثباته

Three Harf (Divine Alphabet)

Sabaha is made up of three letters:

1.    Sin: ‘s’sound that can be interpreted as an indirect flash of light
2.    Ba: ‘b’ sound that can be interpreted as the overwhelming beauty that brim-fills the eyes or beauty that goes beyond the capacity of any eye to endure
3.    Ha: ‘h’ sound that can be interpreted as either a) Hamd adoration for the Divine Presence or b) Hayat or Life!

Three Harf (Divine Alphabets) put together spell a linked chain with the self-entanglement of the Ba shown as a complex knot that stores internal energy.

The chain starts with a sudden unexpected indirect Divine Flash of Nur (Divine Light) followed by the Self-Entanglement of the overpowering Divine Beauty which has much energy stored within it for the upcoming voyage and finally rapid movement appear within the habitat of Ibada (Divine Servitude, worship) which result in life as we know it.

لسان العرب  ابن منظور
والبَهاء: المَنْظَر الحَسَنُ الرائع المالئ للعين. والبَهِيُّ: الشيء ذو البَهاء مما يملأُ العينَ رَوْعُه وحُسْنه.

لسان العرب  ابن منظور
سَنَت النارُ تَسْنُو سَناءً: عَلا ضَوْءُها. والسَّنا، مقصورٌ:ضوءُ النارِ والبرْقِ، وفي التهذيب: السَّنا، مقصورٌ، حَدُّ مُنْتَهى ضوْءِ البرْقِ. وقد أَسْنَى البرْقُ إذا دَخلَ سَناهُ عليكَ بيتَك أَو وقَع على الأَرض أَو طار في السَّحابِ. قال أَبو زيد: سَنا البرْق ضَوْءُه من غير أَن ترَى البرْقَ أَو ترى مَخرَجَه في موْضِعه، فإنما يكون السَّنا بالليل دون النهار وربما كان في غير سَحابٍ.

Hu (IT, He) adores and praises ITself and suddenly life is SEEN (under the indirect flash of Sana) as a byproduct of IT adoring ITself (IT's Baha or overwhelming beauty is radiant: filled with infinite energies). Never has any creature been able to offer praise and adoration for Allah, it was/is/will be the case that Allah offered such admirations for ITself and we appeared as creatures—entangled—with these Divine Self-adorations! As we see a ball’s trajectory into the air and never wonder about the fact that the ball which was stationary needed only the external application of energy which caused it to move into the air, similarly we were all silent until Hu (IT, He) adored ITself and the radiation from that adoration charged our sudden motion of Sabbaha!

Tashdid of Ba: Formation of the Individual 

The Tashdid of Harf (Divine Alphabet) Ba (‘b’ sound) fuels the necessary energies for the prehension, a prehension that is felt by an individual being. These energies form the individual and its subjective-form that feels the vector of the prehension.

From the self-entanglement of the Harf (Divine Alphabet) Ba (‘b’ sound) rises the genesis of the individual. Therefore what we perceive as individual is nothing but the overwhelming beauty of Baha i.e. the self-entangled radiant beauty of Ahadiyat (Mode: Allah and none else)!

For that reason, within the Prophetic Language we find the terms Ahad and Wahid and Fard—different forms of one— which are also used for the individuals within the creation. Had the Tashdid of Harf (Divine Alphabet) Ba (‘b’ sound) not been there, then we could not have had the concept of the individual or one or ‘1’, and creation and life as we observe them today could not have existed.

Sabbaha (Sanctified): The past tense 

There are three occurrences of Sabbaha (Sanctified) within the Qur’an and in all the three the verb Sabbaha is the beginning of the verse i.e. the verse is Jumla-Fa’liya (Verbal Sentence):

Sabbaha (Sanctified), for Allah, (by) what (is) within the heavens and the earth [57:1]

سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

Sabbaha (Sanctified), for Allah, (by) what (is) within the heavens and what (is) within the earth [59:1]

سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

Sabbaha (Sanctified), for Allah, (by) what (is) within the heavens and what (is) within the earth [61:1]

سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

Note: ‘Sabbaha (Sanctified) for Allah’ is better translated as ‘Allah was sanctified’. Whenever possible, I have tried to keep the same sentence structure as in the Arabic, but the reader should understand that the verb is placed at the beginning of the sentence in this case

Abdul-.Qadir Al-Baghdadi (Khazanatul Adab)

And then he versed: "I am the son of (one) unveiled as a celebrity"; in this sentence, the ‘one/person’ is omitted and the attribute/characterization of the omitted one/person is the Jumla Fa’liya (Verbal Sentence) i.e. the past tense ‘unveiled’ while the Fa’il (Doer) is omitted.

Note: Jumla Fa’liya (Verbal Sentence) is often used as the attribute/characterization of some entity e.g. the sentence starting with Sabbaha (Sanctified) means the sanctification by all that is in heavens and earth characterize the sanctification of Allah.

خزانة الأدب  عبد القادر البغدادي
وأنشد بعده: الوافر أنا ابن جلا وطلاع الثنايا 
على أن الموصوف محذوف وصفته جملة فعلية، وهي جلا على أنه فعل ماض، وفاعله ضمير مستتر فيه، والتقدير: أنا ابن رجل الأمور وكشفها.

Al-Balagha (Umar Bin Alawi bin Abi Bakr Al-Kuf)
Jumla Fa’liya (Verbal Sentence)
It is a sentence composed of a verb and a subject, it informs by the origin of its semantics (without the context of what is after it) of the transience of a specified period of time. For example if you said: ‘The sky rained’ the listener is only informed of the transience of the raining in a specified period of time i.e. the past.

عمر بن علوي بن أبي بكر الكاف
جملةٍ فعليةٍ
ما تركَّبَتْ من فعلٍ و فاعلٍ و هي تفيدُ بأصلِ وضعها الحدوثَ في زمنٍ مخصوصٍ مع الاختصارِ
فإذا قلتَ أمطَرَتِ السَّماءُ   لم يستفدِ السَامعُ من ذلك إلَا حدوثَ الإمطارِ في الزمنِ الماضي

At the beginning of these verses Sabbaha (Sanctified) informs us of the occurrence of sanctification in a specific period, infinitely ancient from before time immemorial i.e. Qidam: before the passage of time and the transience of this universe.

Usabbihu in the present tense tells us that all creatures have the potential of praising and adoring Allah and that they do fulfill that potential. On the other hand, Sabbaha in the past tense tells us that all creatures stripped from their potentialities praise and adore Allah without any consideration for probabilities.

Sabbaha (past tense praised) came in some verses and Usabbihu (present tense praising) came in others to indicate that all creatures are praising and sanctifying Allah regardless of the period of time. In other words their very Mahiya (What-ness) is Musabbihiya (Praiser). (No matter how the final conscresence of the object is, it is a Musabbihiya i.e. adorer and praiser of Allah no matter what stage of  creation and no matter what constitution)

 تفسير مفاتيح الغيب ، التفسير الكبير/ الرازي (ت 606 هـ)
المسألة الثانية: جاء في بعض الفواتح { سَبِّحِ } على لفظ الماضي، وفي بعضها على لفظ المضارع، وذلك إشارة إلى أن كون هذه الأشياء مسبحة غير مختص بوقت دون وقت، بل هي كانت مسبحة أبداً في الماضي، وتكون مسبحة أبداً في المستقبل، وذلك لأن كونها مسبحة صفة لازمة لماهياتها، فيستحيل انفكاك تلك الماهيات عن ذلك التسبيح، وإنما قلنا: إن هذه المسبحية صفة لازمة لماهياتها، لأن كل ما عدا الواجب ممكن، وكل ممكن فهو مفتقر إلى الواجب، وكون الواجب واجباً يقتضي تنزيهه عن كل سوء في الذات والصفات والأفعال والأحكام والأسماء على ما بيناه، فظهر أن هذه المسبحية كانت حاصلة في الماضي، وتكون حاصلة في المستقبل، والله أعلم.

 Li (Specialization)   

The proposition Li (For, Specialization) is used after both Sabbaha and Usabbihu as follows:

1.    Li with low sounding ‘eh’ intonation to render the quietness and silence observed with Allah is patently present! No one has the courage to raise their voices or cognate any cognition unless it is for the sole adoration of That Deified Beloved of the heavens and earth.
2.    Li specifies a viewing direction, from the other universe to here, where all the Insan Kamil (Perfected Pupil/Eye) can behold is ‘for Allah’ exclusively and nothing else.
3.    ‘For what is within the heavens and earth’ are all dedicated and devoted to Allah, there is no misunderstanding to whom they belong and who they are praising and adoring.

Al-Lamat (By Al-Zajjaj)
Chapter: The possessive Lam

“In the pronunciation form Li, Li-Zaid means something belonging to Zaid, it is connected before the name Zaid.

If someone asked what is the difference between:

1.    Ghulamu Zaid-e (Zaid’s lad)
2.    Ghulamun Li-Zaid-e (a Lad for Zaid)

By saying Ghulamu Zaid-e (Zaid’s lad) you identify the lad by Zaid i.e. this lad is known because of his relationship to Zaid. On the contrary, when you say Ghulamun Li-Zaid-e (a Lad for Zaid), this ‘points’ towards the lad to inform the listeners that, for instance, if there were number of other lads this specific one belongs to Zaid.”

Rephrasing for our context:

1.    Baitul-lah (Allah’s House) has no ‘Li’ therefore a house is made famous for being associated with the name of Allah. (Allah's Messenger, Allah's She-camel)
2.    Lill-Lah (For Allah), on the contrary makes some object or act point towards Allah i.e. the object or the act in of itself is of no consequence except that it forms a ‘vector’ pointing, directing towards Allah.

Therefore the Lamic prehension has a shifted focus, it is not about the objectification of the subject, it is rather about the prehension forming a vector that points back towards the Qidam.

Lamic prehensions are for the purpose of generating cross-multiversal vectors pointing back at the Qidam.

اللامات  الزجاجي
باب لام الملك
لام الملك موصلة لمعنى الملك إلى المالك وهي متصلة بالمالك لا المملوك كقولك: هذه الدار لزيد وهذا المال لعمرو وهذا ثوب لأخيك، وقد تتقدم مع المالك قبل المملوك إلا أنه لا بد من تقدير فعل تكون من صلته كقولك: لزيد مال ولعبد الله ثوب لأن التقدير معنى الملك، قال الشاعر: لليلى بأعلى ذي معارك منزل  خلاء تنادى أهله فتحملـوا
فإن قال قائل فما الفرق بين قولك هذا غلام زيد وهذا غلام لزيد إذا كنت قد أضفته في الوجهين إلى زيد قيل له الفرق بينهما أنك إذا قلت هذا غلام زيد فقد عرفته بزيد وإنما تخاطب بهذا من قد عرف ملك زيد إياه وشهر به عنده وإذا قلت هذا غلام لزيد، فإن ما تشير إلى غلام منكور ثم عرفت مخاطبك أن زيدا يملكه في عدة غلمان أو وحده فأفدته من معنى الملك ما لم يعلمه فهذه مخاطبة من لم يعلم ملك زيد إياه حتى أفدته وغلام في هذا الوجه نكرة وإن كانت اللام قد أدت عن معنى إضافته إلى زيد لأنها تفصل بين المضاف والمضاف إليه من أن يتعرف المضاف به أو يكون المضاف إليه تماما له،

Lam (The ‘L’ sounding alphabet) comes into two varieties:

1.    La, sounding as in cat, and it sounds as such only when it is connected before a personal pronoun La-Kum (For you)
2.    Li, sounding as lit and it sounds as such only when it is connected before a name e.g. Li-Zaid (For Zaid)

La is the louder sound referring to an absence while Li is the lowered sound referring to an actual presence.

La-Hu (For IT, For Him) is a louder sound of La to indicate the absence i.e. Allah is not patently present and therefore we dare raise our voices, there is no need to maintain the Adab (Etiquette) since the Divine Presence is missing.

Li-llah (For Allah) is a lower sound of Li to indicate the presence i.e. Allah is patently present and therefore we do not dare raise our voices, and there is an obligation to maintain the Adab (Etiquette) for Divine Presence:

20:108 All sounds shall humble themselves in the Presence of ((Allah)) Most Gracious: nothing shalt thou hear but the tramp of their feet (as they march).

وَخَشَعَتِ الْأَصْوَاتُ لِلرَّحْمَنِ فَلَا تَسْمَعُ إِلَّا هَمْسًا

Therefore there are two distinct categories of Lamic Prehensions:

1.    Li: Facing the Divine Presence
2.    La: Lack of the Divine Presence

Li as we get closer to the Qidam and La as we get closer to our potential forms in this transient world.

اللامات  الزجاجي
باب لام المضمر
لام المضمر هي اللام الخافضة للأسماء في خبر إن أو غيره كقولك: هذا لك ولكما ولكم ولهم وله وما أشبه ذلك كما قال تعالى: (لَكُمْ دِينُكُمْ وَلِيَ دِينِ)؛ ولهم أجر غير ممنون؛ وهي مفتوحة مع جميع المضمرات إلا مع ضمير الواحد إذا أخبر عن نفسه كقولك: لي غلام ولي ثوب وإنما انكسرت مع الياء هاهنا لأن من شأن ياء الإضافة أن تكسر ما قبلها إلا أن يكون حرف مد ولين كقولك: هذا ثوبي وغلامي ورأيت ثوبي وغلامي ومررت بثوبي وغلامي يكون على حال واحدة كما ترى، فإن كان قبلها ألف لم يمكن كسرها لأن الحركة في الألف غير سائغة فتترك الألف على حالها وتفتح ياء الإضافة كقولك: هذان غلاماي وهذا فتاي ورأيت فتاي ومررت بفتاي ورحاي كما قال الله جل وعز هي عصاي أتوكأ عليها ومن العرب من يقلب الألف ياء فيدغم فيقول هذه عصي ورحي ومنه قول بعض الصحابة وضعوا اللج على قفي قال أبو ذؤيب: سبقوا هوي وأعنقوا لهواهم  ففقدتهم ولكل جنب مصرع 
فإن قال قائل فإذا كانت لام المضمر هذه التي ذكرتها هي اللام الخافضة بمعنى الملك والا ستحقاق في الخبر وغيره فلم فتحت مع المضمر وكسرت مع الظاهر فقيل هذا غلام لزيد وهذا غلام لك وما أشبه ذلك فالجواب في ذلك أن أصل هذه اللام الفتح لأن أصل هذه الحروف التي جاءت على حرف واحد للمعاني الفتح نحو السين الدالة على الاستقبال وواو العطف وفائه والواو والتاء في القسم والواو بمعنى رب، ولام الابتداء وما أشبه ذلك وإنما يكسر منها ما يكسر فصلا بين مشتبهين أو يكون ما يجيء منها مكسورا نزرا يسيرا عندما جاء منها مفتوحا ومن الدليل أيضا على أن أصل لام الخفض الفتح وأنها فتحت مع المضمر على أصلها أنك تقدر على إضمار كل مظهر ولست تقدر على إظهار كل مضمر على معناه نحو المضمر في نعم وبئس وباب كان وإن وفي ربه رجلا والمضمر وكذلك قولك: زيد قام وما أشبه ذلك فتحت اللام الخافضة مع المضمر على أصلها وكسرت مع الظاهر فرقا بينها وبين لام التوكيد لأنك لو فتحتها مع الظاهر أشبهت لام التوكيد ألا ترى أنك لو قلت وأنت تريد الإضافة إن هذا لزيد لم يعلم هل قصدت إلى إضافة المشار إليه إلى زيد أو إلى الإخبار بأن المشار إليه زيد، فإن قال قائل، فإن الإعراب ينبئ عن ذلك لأنك كنت تقول في الإضافة إن هذا لزيد بالخفض فإذا لم ترد الإضافة كنت تقول إن هذا لزيد بالرفع قيل له الإعراب يسقط في الوقف فيسقط الدليل فجعل الفرق باللام لئلا يزول في وصل ولا وقف فكان أبين دلالة مما يدل في حال ويسقط في حال فأما المضمر فلا لبس في مثل هذه الحال لأن علامة المضمر المخفوض غير علامة المضمر المرفوع، فإن ت تقول إذا أردت الإضافة إن هذا لك ولكما ولكم وإذا لم ترد الإضافة وأردت أن المشار إليه هو المخاطب أو غيره وأن الثاني هو الأول قلت إن هذا لأنت فلم يقع فيه لبس فبقيت اللام على أصلها مفتوحة وهذا بين واضح

Al-Lamat (by Al-Zajjaj)
Chapter: Lami al-Istihqaq (Lam for worthiness)

“The Lam for Istihqaq (Worthiness) has a lower sound:. Li as in Al-Hamdu (The Praise) Li-lLahi (Worthy only for Allah). Sibawayh is of the opinion that this type of low sounding Li indicates Istiqrar (Establishment, Constancy, Continuance, Permanency) i.e. Al-Hamdu (The Praise) is an established constancy with perpetual continuance Lil-Lahi (For Allah).”

In our context again the Li Prehension is a deeply rooted and durable vectorial prehension of Qidam, for the purpose of directing towards Allah.

اللامات  الزجاجي
باب لام الاستحقاق
لام الاستحقاق خافضة لما يتصل بها كما تخفض لام الملك ومعنياهما متقاربان إلا أنا فصلنا بينهما لأن من الأشياء ما تستحق ولا يقع عليها الملك، ولام الاستحقاق كقوله عز وجل: (الحمد لله رب العالمين) و(الْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ الَّذِي هَدَانَا لِهَذَا)؛ وكقولك: المنة في هذا لزيد والفضل فيما تسديه إلي لزيد ألا ترى أن المنة والفضل ليس مما يملك وإن كان المملوك والمستحق حاصلين للمستحق والمالك، ولام الملك والاستحقاق جميعا من صلة فعل أو معناه لا بد من ذلك، وكذلك سائر حروف الخفض كلها صلات لأفعال تتقدمها وتتأخر عنها كقولك: الحمد لله رب العالمين؛ والمال لزيد يقدر سيبويه فيهما معنى الاستقرار تقديره عنده المال مستقر لزيد والحمد مستقر لله تعالى، وكذلك يقدر في الظروف كلها معنى الاستقرار والفراء يقدر معنى الحلول كقولك: زيد في الدار تقديره عنده زيد حل في الدار؛ وأما الكسائي فلم يحفظ عنه في ذلك تقدير ولكن يسمى الحروف الخافضة والظروف كلها الصفات وينصبها لمخالفتها الأسماء

Non-cognitive Tasbih Example: Gene Expression  

The best example of the non-cognitive Tasbih (Sanctification for Allah) is the DNA transcription and translation. Each of these operations, in and of itself, is a form of praise, adoration and sanctification: 

Note: The protein transcription and translation units, as well as the codons are three nucleotides long just like the Sabbaha made from three Ahruf (Divine Alphabets)!

Each time these nucleotides are copied or placed, the molecules made Usabbihu (present tense praise) for Allah.

The conserved codons and other conserved sequences are indeed the primordial i.e. they are the abstraction for Sabbah (past tense praised)

These DNA sequences and biopolymers are ‘what is within the heavens and earth’ or they are the very abstractions that do render Tasbih for Allah.

Q: How do they make their Tasbih? With what language?
A: Baqli:

“Whatever exists and all their subparts and subunits sanctified Allah by the language of ‘Ajz (Helplessness) i.e. inability to reach to a praising-rank befitting to praise Allah, and with the additional language of Iftiqar (Neediness) i.e. complete neediness for Allah. In reality, Hu (IT, He) Sabbaha (Praised, Sanctified) ITself with their tongues/languages and with their deeds for they are Hu’s deeds by which He characterized ITs/His Self.  For even before the existence of the Universe, Hu Purified Hus (ITs, His) own Nafs (Divine Self) through ITs own infinitely ancient Divine Attribute (in Qidam) and then characterized ITs own Nafs (Divine Self) through ITs deeds thus ennobling the creation and exalting the Truth . ITs own sanctification overpowers the sanctification of the creation i.e. Allah has made an edict (Hukm) that all creatures are to remain unable to praise and to sanctify Hu (IT, Him) as indicated by the trailer of the verse [57:1] And Hu (IT, He) is Al-Aziz (Mighty) and Al-Hakim (Wise giver of edicts)!”

تفسير عرائس البيان في حقائق القرآن/ البقلي (ت 606 هـ)
نزه الله الاكوان ومن فيها بلسان العجز عن البلوغ الى ثنائه وبلسان الافتقار اليه وفى الحقيقة هو سبح لنفسه بالسنتهم لانها افعاله وبافعاله وصف نفسه اذ هو قبل وجود الكون نزه نفسه بصفته القديمة ثم وصف نفسه بفعله تشريفا للخليقة وتعظيما للحقيقة فتنزيهه غالب على تنزيه الخلق وحكم بعجزهم عن تسبيحه بقوله { وَهُوَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ }.

The genes Usabbihu (Praise in present continuous tense) in the languages of the Quantum Relativist Mechanics, weak and strong nuclear forces, the orbital language of the molecular bonds and the incredible perpetual machine of the Brownian Motion and its underlying thermodynamical processes and … yes we get tired counting the number of languages of involved in this gene translation operation which occurs trillions of times in a single body per day… If you count the number of gene expressions in all creatures since the dawn of life on this planet up to now … this would give you a sense of the magnitude of the ‘what within the heavens and the earth’…

Moses’ Angelic Tasbih  

Nusabbihu-Ka, present plural ‘we shall/are sanctify(ing) You’ only for Moses and his brother as a team [20:33]

كَيْ نُسَبِّحَكَ كَثِيرًا

Compare the above to the angelic praises alphabetized in the Qur'an:

Nusabbihu, present plural ‘we shall/are sanctify(ing)’ followed by "Bi-Hamdi-Ka (By means of Your Praise)" for the angels [2:30]

يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

What was grand and special about the person of Moses, peace be upon him and his noble mother and noble brother, was that he had a very unique and special ‘angelic’ Tasbih! His Tasbih has been rendered in a similar manner as that of the angels and even better since Ka (you) was added to the end of this Tasbih i.e. Nusabbihu-Ka, while it was not appended to the end of the angelic Tasbih!

This mark of the grandness of this prophet-hood totally eclipses the crossing of the Nile!

Nowhere else in the Qur’an and for no one else can such an alphabetization of praise be found.

© 2007-2002,  Dara O. Shayda, Dr. Hind Rifai